The periods delay - why it happens?
Advising women, the doctor the obstetrician - the gynecologist often faces the complaint on “a delay monthly“. In this case the patient has a concern and natural questions: Whether “All as it should be? And suddenly I am pregnant? Whether there is it to others? Whether I am healthy?“ Let`s talk about the reasons of this state which can be various.
A little physiology
the Menstrual cycle is monthly changes in a female organism which happen under the influence of sex hormones. Regular periods - bloody allocations from genitals which duration normal makes 3 - 7 days are considered as the main sign of a normal cycle (its duration of 21 - 35 days). Normal blood loss during periods does not exceed 50 - 100 ml.Menstrual function is regulated by
by means of joint activity of a difficult complex of nervous and humoral structures (a cerebral cortex; gipotalamus and a hypophysis - the endocrine glands located in a brain), and also genitals (ovaries, a uterus). As all levels of this system are interconnected, the delay of the next periods can be connected with violation of work of any of the listed links. Therefore “breakage“ on any of levels of regulation of a menstrual cycle can become the reason of a delay of periods.
of the Reason of a delay of periods
the Delay of monthly can be caused by various gynecologic diseases , such as inflammation of appendages of a uterus (salpingooforit), uterus myoma (a benign tumor of a uterus) and others. However it should be noted that at these diseases bleedings from a uterus are more often observed.Periodic delays of periods are characteristic
of such disease as polikistoz ovaries (PKYa) . Under this concept unite a number of pathological processes at which production of hormones is broken. At the same time in an organism there is no ovulation (an ovum exit from an ovary) and there is infertility.by
of PKYa it is observed at malfunction of various bodies: gipotalamusa, hypophysis, adrenal glands, thyroid gland and ovaries. Therefore the disease can be shown differently depending on the reasons of its emergence, and for establishment of the diagnosis there is not enough use of any one diagnostic sign or method.
At a polikistoza of ovaries violations of a menstrual cycle (more often - delays from several days to several months), the excess growth of hair on a body, increase in the sizes of ovaries (but not always), most often occur at a half of patients - obesity. At measurement of bazalny temperature (in a rectum) it remains approximately constant during a cycle, but does not increase in its second half as is normal. At the most expressed (primary) form of a disease these signs appear already at teenage age after approach of monthly.
For treatment of this state are appointed by various hormonal preparations, the means reducing the level of male sex hormones (whose formation increases at this disease), regulating exchange processes in structures of a brain, etc. are used. In the presence of obesity decrease in body weight is absolutely necessary. By preparation for the planned pregnancy the important stage of treatment consists in stimulation of an ovulation - an ovum exit of an ovary. For this purpose apply medicines, and at their inefficiency use surgical methods of treatment. Now it is carried out by a laparoscopy: in a forward belly wall do small openings through which enter optical devices for survey of an abdominal cavity and surgical tools.
the Delay of periods can arise also later of interruption of pregnancy . Violation of hormonal balance is the reason, and also the fact that during a tool scraping of a uterus the excessive amount of fabrics including that part of an internal vystilka of a uterus which normal accrues during a menstrual cycle and is allocated in the form of menstrual blood can be removed. For restoration of this functional layer sometimes it is required to time slightly more, than during a normal cycle. That is after abortion the periods can come not through 28 - 32 in the afternoon, and in 40 days and more. Such delay is not normal: the woman needs inspection and treatment.
reception of oral contraceptives can be the Cause of a delay of periods . During reception of a preparation or after its cancellation during several menstrual cycles lack of periods can be observed: it is a so-called syndrome of hyper braking of ovaries.oral contraceptives cancel
At development of a syndrome of hyper braking of ovaries. As a rule, within 2 - 3 months, at most - within 6 months after the end of their reception function of ovaries is spontaneously restored. If lack of periods remains is longer, appoint the means stimulating work of a hypophysis (CLOMIFENE), or preparations, stimulating maturing of an ovum and its exit from an ovary (PERGONAL, HORIONICHESKIY GONADOTROPIN). Before restoration of normal menstrual function it is necessary to use other methods of contraception.
the Stress - long or strong short-term - is
the reason of failure in work of the central structures (a cerebral cortex, a gipotalamus) regulating work of ovaries and a uterus. Can be an example of such frustration so-called amenoreya a wartime when in the conditions of a stress at women periods stopped.
One more reason of a considerable delay of periods. So, doctors have such concept as critical menstrual weight is a weight in the presence of which at girls - teenagers periods, as a rule, begin. However we are interested more the fact that at strong desire to grow thin, having reached this critical menstrual weight (45 - 47 kg), the woman can receive not only desirable result, but also a long delay of periods.
Most often such effect arises at of nervous anorexia - the violation of food behavior which is characterized by refusal of meal and/or its rejection. It is followed by disorder of work of such regulating systems of an organism as nervous and endocrine. Nervous anorexia is characterized by sharp decrease in production of the hormones of a hypophysis regulating including work of ovaries. At the same time violation of reproductive function should be considered as protective reaction in the conditions of food deficiency and mental loadings. And therefore restoration of age secretion of hormones requires achievement of ideal body weight and elimination of a mental stress.
Nervous anorexia in 50% of cases can proceed with episodes of bulimia (gluttony) after which at the patient especially strong indications of alarm, repentance and depression, successful attempts to cause vomiting are shown.
For this reason, preparing for pregnancy, do not try to reach an ideal “90 - 60 - 90“. If you plan to grow thin, treat it reasonably, and it is better - address the nutritionist.
Pregnancy is, fortunately, the most frequent and most physiologic reason of a delay of periods at women of reproductive age. In this case the delay of monthly can be followed by such signs as change of flavoring and olfactory feelings, a nagrubaniye, morbidity of mammary glands. As a rule, the test for pregnancy in this case yields positive result. The delay of periods arises also at extra-uterine pregnancy when fetal egg is attached in a uterine tube. At the same time all subjective feelings characteristic of pregnancy can be also present.
What the doctor can make?
At violations of a menstrual cycle needs to see a doctor immediately. Survey of the obstetrician - the gynecologist will allow to exclude the states demanding immediate surgery. It can be extra-uterine pregnancy, the stood pregnancy, tumoral diseases, etc.the doctor can appoint by
For understanding of a cause of infringement of a menstrual cycle additional inspections:
- of measurement of bazalny temperature and scheduling of its change - these measurements, along with other methods, allow to judge existence or lack of such event as an ovulation - an ovum exit from an ovary;
- of ultrasonography of bodies of a small pelvis - a uterus, ovaries;
- blood test on hormones - with its help are defined by the level of hormones of a hypophysis, ovaries, and if necessary - and other endocrine glands;
- computer or magnitno - a resonant tomography - methods by means of which it is possible to receive layer-by-layer pictures of structures of a brain for a hypophysis tumor exception.
in the presence of the accompanying endocrine diseases consultation of other doctors - the endocrinologist, the psychotherapist, the nutritionist.