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Professor I. Kon about healthy food of school students

your kid already the first grader. That is not just child, and pupil. Exercises and problems, dictations and control, homework - on all this is required a lot of energy! And the child also grows. All of us know: successfully to grind away at the studies, it is necessary to eat properly. But what is useful and what not really for the child of school age? We collected questions, answers to which would like to receive many parents, and set them to the famous specialist in baby food.

is Answered by the head of department of baby food of Institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, the doctor of medical sciences, professor, the honored worker of science of the Russian Federation Igor Yakovlevich Kon:

- Knows that considerable part of graduates of schools have various diseases of a gastrointestinal tract. Whether it is possible to say that it is wine of parents?

- Yes, unfortunately, many children come to school healthy, and leave with the whole bunch of diseases. And the majority of them could and be prevented, having paid more attention to food of the child - houses and at school. For example, only the few parents care for what is eaten by the child before an exit from the house. Typical picture: took a sip to tea, bit off sandwich - and rushed off in school. There pecked something, and having come back home, met this lack at full scale. About what balanced diet to speak here? Parents shift responsibility to school while depends on them what will be food of their child.

- we Will put, parents attended to health of the child and decided not to let out it from the house until he properly has breakfast. What has to be the school student`s breakfast?

- the Definite answer to this question cannot be. How many children, are so much also habits, features of an organism. One children of an owl, other larks, one already at six in the morning have breakfast with pleasure, and others cannot push in themselves anything before leaving in school. However anyway the child has to leave the house, having eaten something. How densely - it depends on the organization of school food. If the child has breakfast at school, then at home he can give tea (or juice, compote) and, say, sandwich. If at school only lunches are organized, then it something has to be more essential - porridge or baked pudding, sandwiches, egg dishes. As for drinks, it is desirable that they were hot, especially in the winter.

- Children often chew something at school - candies, cookies, apples. Whether it is harmful? Really it is impossible to give to the child with itself in school apple?

- Having a snack really reduces appetite and if the child has breakfast at home, has an afternoon snack and has dinner at school, then still something to have a bite to it absolutely to anything. However if breaks between meals considerable (it is more than 3 - 4 hours), then it is possible to have a bite.

- And than it is better for p to have a bite?

- Here the choice is quite big. However, one requirement is obligatory - the child has to take with himself in school products which will not deteriorate in 3 - 4 hours. For example apples, juice or milk in small bags of a tubule, cheese sandwich, lean cookies, a cracker, for example.

- Give

now we will talk in more detail about what is possible and what is impossible. For example, all of us know that children cannot drink coffee. Explain in what danger of this drink to the growing organism?

- And not only coffee, but also strong tea. First of all at their use the weak nervous system of the child suffers - he becomes irritable, sluggish, quickly gets tired, the sleep is often interrupted. Besides, caffeine possesses strong diuretic action. From - for it load of kidneys considerably increases, liquid and mineral substances is intensively removed from an organism that, of course, is undesirable. The continuous use of coffee can adversely affect also work of heart. So for health it is better for children to drink, fruit juice, fruit drinks, mineral water.

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Yes, and tea are very attractive to children of coffee. But it is necessary to understand what put not so much in taste of these drinks, how many that they are drunk by adults. To the child it is unclear: if it is possible for the father and mother, then why it is impossible for it? From here offenses and tears. In such cases I always advise to go on cunning - to give to the child of coffee, but substitute, that is from barley, chicory etc. There is no caffeine in such drink.

- From what age can drink coffee and tea?

- to School students can give rather weak tea (the amount of tea in a disposable bag will be enough for two or even three cups). And here I would advise not to give coffee up to 16 - 17 years, the child still will manage to get drunk it at adult age, and before it is not necessary better.

- And whether it is possible already to cease to feed the child after 7 years with “fresh“ dishes?

- It is undesirable to

. Spices, as we know, irritate mucous a stomach, thereby increasing risk of gastritises and other diseases of a gastrointestinal tract. It is clear, that children very much love such products - smoked products, hamburgers, pizza and so forth. Sometimes something it is possible to allow - for example, on birthday, new year, but the use of such dishes should not pass into system at all.

- They say that children cannot give mushrooms. Why?

- Yes, to children mushrooms are younger than five years it is not recommended to give. In - the first, the risk of poisoning is very high because to distinguish a usual mushroom from poisonous sometimes happens very difficult. In - the second, mushrooms are quite “heavy“ food, they contain rough fibers which badly are digested. However to school students will not damage a champignons dish or oyster mushrooms.

- And now about useful. Often you hear that in order that the child studied at school better, he should give iodine. As far as this element is so important for cerebration?

I will tell

At once that a lot of things are important for successful work of a brain. Food has to provide the child with all substances necessary for an organism including iodine.

If to speak about properties of this element, then it really influences mental capacities of the person. Or rather, hormones of a thyroid gland which part iodine is. The same hormones regulate the most important processes of an organism: control growth processes, influence work of immune system, stimulate protein synthesis, reduce cholesterol level in blood etc.

the Lack of iodine is very dangerous by

as it threatens with development of serious chronic diseases.

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But before rushing to a drugstore, to parents it is necessary to be convinced precisely that it is necessary. For this purpose it is enough to answer himself several questions. Whether iodinated salt is used for cooking? Whether the child regularly sea fish, sea cabbage, seafood eats? If the affirmative answer, then additional reception of iodine is not necessary. In the return case to parents a direct road to the pediatrician. Only the doctor has to decide what preparation and in what doses is necessary for the child.

- And how many iodine in day is necessary for the child?

- to Children of 6 - 9 years needs 80 mkg of iodine a day, 10 - 13 years - 100, and later, 14 - 17 - 130 mkg.

- And what has to be a balanced diet of the child who plays sports? Many children already from the first class begin to visit sports sections.

- I would tell so: to various, corresponding age needs of the child, during the periods of intensive trainings the quantity of food has to increase, but not in mad quantities. And a lot of things depend on a sport therefore it is always necessary to consult on the trainer and the doctor.

Just before trainings better densely not is, and to compensate energy expenses later. The same concerns also water - better to drink then.

- There now, the next quarter ended, the portfolio is thrown. During school vacation many parents leave with children to tropical countries. What you would make recommendations about food in hot climate?

- On food do not have special recommendations, the only thing, perhaps: it is better if the structure of a diet does not differ too from habitual to the child, exotic not always does well. However the drinking mode during a heat has to be special, it concerns both children, and adults. As the person loses a lot of liquid, with it mineral salts are removed from an organism. To avoid it, it is necessary, in - the first, to drink more water - ideally it there has to be a mineral water. And in - the second not to allow big losses of liquid. On vacation it is necessary to show consideration especially for children - from that, how well the child will have a rest, also his achievements in school will depend.