Professor I. Kon about healthy food of children from a year to 6 years of
So, to your kid was executed year. He grew up already enough, feels independent and much that adults whom he so wants to resemble are able is able. That it is good to grow and develop to it already insufficiently mother`s milk and various mashed potatoes further. The kid is already ready to gradual transition to more serious food which will come to the end approximately by 5 - 6 years. This “transition period“ demands especially responsible attitude of parents. Experts note that irrational food in the early childhood is the reason of many problems with digestion and a metabolism, shown already at adult age. Not to make dangerous mistakes, we will arm with scientific knowledge. With it we will be helped by the head of department of baby food of Institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, the doctor of medical sciences, professor, the honored worker of science Igor Yakovlevich Kon.
- As and in what terms it is correct to carry out transition of the child to “adult“ food?- It is very important
that the child received food of that consistence which corresponds to his age. Many parents, too caring for the child, continue to feed him with the wiped dishes up to 2 - 3 years. But such “care“ does not bring any benefit, and rather even harms. The food has to stimulate, but not detain development of the chewing device and a gastrointestinal tract of the child.to the One-year-old kid instead of mashed potatoes can already give to
the dishes passed via the meat grinder. By two years at the child usually already of 20 milk teeth, he can already well chew therefore it is possible to pass to larger pieces. After three years the healthy child already has to receive a portion dish a piece. He is already quite able to chew, digest and acquire even beef Stroganoff.
- And how many meat is necessary for children of 1 - 6 years? And what meat is suitable for the child more?Answering with
this question, it is necessary to tell first of all that there are exactly so many recommendations about consumption of meat how many is children Each child is individual and, his needs for meat, fish and other products are respectively individual. Therefore we can speak only about very approximate norms and recommendations focused on such “average“ kid. Taking into account this remark, one may say, that the child from a year to one and a half years needs approximately 60 - 70 grams of meat gross in day. In this case the child will receive enough protein, digestible iron, and also a number of vitamins of group B. It is better if it is forcemeat or - if the child is already able to chew more or less well - quenelles.
B one and a half - two and a half years the kid has to receive already 70 - 80 g of meat gross in day of 4 - 5 times a week. At this age children can already cook steam cutlets. About 120 grams (gross) of meat in days are recommended to the child of 2,5 - 5. It is possible and is necessary to offer not crushed boiled meat, in the form of beef and fowl, goulash, schnitzel. The six-year-old child needs 120 g of meat, including fowl, daily. Meat, but not sausages and other semi-finished products, in which, as we know, much more fat, than protein.As for a type of meat, low-fat beef or veal, chicken, a turkey is more preferable than
to baby food, it is possible to use low-fat pork and mutton. Besides, surely the menu have to join a meat offal: kidneys, language, heart, liver. It is worth to remember also about fish who besides protein is the most valuable source of some irreplaceable fatty acids, iron, B12 vitamin and other useful elements. It is better to choose low-fat grades of sea and river fishes, such as a pike perch, a cod, a hake, a grouper, a navaga.
- After a year the child already eats a lot of rather firm food, so his need for liquid increases. How many children need to drink of a year and is more senior?
- For children aged from 1 till 3 years the daily norm is about 100 ml of water on kilogram of weight, from 3 to 7 years - about 80 ml. Possibly and bigger quantity. At children in connection with their high mobility of loss of water are very notable therefore children it is sharp it is not necessary to limit in drink. >
it is better for p to Drink water - the nursery mineral without gas or boiled and cooled to room temperature. Sweet compotes, juice and drinks are undesirable as they beat off appetite. At the same time the main part of water should be drunk in breaks between meals, but not during food. The matter is that if the child drinks waters during food, then water fills a stomach and the child prematurely feels full. There will pass not enough time, and he will get hungry that will lead to violation of a diet.
- Many parents complain of what their child “pecks as vorobyshka“. Why the child badly eats? How to improve appetite?
- As for the first question, appetite at children decreases for various reasons, but the most frequent is the wrong organization of feeding. It is desirable that the child is more senior than year has to eat strictly in certain time. When the child constantly “picks“, he just does not manage to get hungry and about any good appetite and the speech cannot be. Besides, if the child leans on sweets and drinks, he receives less many more useful products.
the monotony of food can be Other cause of a small appetite - to the child just bothers to eat same. Therefore it is not necessary to prepare for the future especially as at storage and warming up the nutrition value of products decreases.
cases when at the child not enough saliva is emitted Sometimes meet, from - for what it is difficult for it to chew and swallow of food. Of course, such kid eats with a reluctance. In this case it is necessary to prepare more liquid dishes, to sauce the second, to suggest to wash down food with water.
Though often happens that the child simply is capricious. In this case it is not necessary to rush for preparation “something such“. Rather quietly to explain to the child that he can eat, but next time he will be invited to a table only in several hours - during the following feeding. Usually it helps.
“Frequent walks on the street, outdoor games, fun help to work up appetite“. At the same time excessive excitement of the child as a result of active games, viewing of the TV, etc. can be the cause of loss of appetite. Therefore it is desirable that before the child was called to a table he would stay in a quiet situation, has a rest. Besides, the good dream is very important for food of the child. It is necessary to watch that it passed daily at the same time. And it is impossible to feed the child violently at all - it will create permanent disgust for food at the child. And meal always has to be followed only by positive emotions, give pleasure.
- If at the child, on the contrary, with appetite everything is all right and sometimes very much wants to be had a bite between the main meals - really it is necessary to refuse strictly?- Is not present
if there is a strong wish, then it is not necessary to refuse. Sometimes even small additional “recharge“ - for example after the child was run in the fresh air is necessary for the child. It is possible to give a piece of the dried bread, it is a little dried apricots, raisin. But, besides, you should not suggest to have a bite sweets - they will dampen ardor and when time of full feeding comes, the child can refuse food. If the kid really got hungry, then with pleasure will have a bite also a bread crust.
In general when the daily diet of the child is made correctly, it is undesirable to supplement it with something without special on the bases. At one child appetite can deteriorate, and another with pleasure will eat everything that to it is offered that too is bad. Experts around the world incline more and more that a problem of excess weight at adults which is so actual today, connected with the wrong diet in the early childhood.
- What you would make recommendations about food of full children? You will not put into a diet of the child.
- Universal recommendations in this case cannot be. The reasons of excess weight can be the most different, including first of all hereditary. Respectively, and the expert observing the child has to make a diet. But if the full child is healthy, active, then the reason of his excess weight is really covered in wrong in food.
Main what it is necessary to pay attention to, is a frequency and volume of the eaten food, the amount of fats and carbohydrates is especially important. There are special norms of daily consumption of energy and feedstuffs for children of different age, and it is necessary to be guided by them by drawing up a diet. It is not necessary to count, of course, very strictly milligrams - norms these average. However if you notice that the child eats much more, than it is required to him, then do not hurry to deprive of his favourite dishes at once. It is necessary to reduce a level gradually, over and over again reducing portions a little, limiting consumption of some products not to injure the child.
It is important that at decrease in caloric content, the food did not become less tasty - it will demand from parents of an ingenuity and even cunning. For example, the baked potatoes are not less tasty, than fried in hot fan. The same can be told about meat and fish. It is possible to increase portions at the expense of vegetables (for example, a cauliflower, spinach, siliculose haricot, but not potatoes) that the child felt full, but at the same time did not receive superfluous.
- And if, on the contrary, the child too thin what to do?
- Often parents unreasonably worry concerning excessive leanness of the child - it seems, eats normally, and all the same “skin and bone“. However if the kid is healthy, mobile, eats well, then it is not necessary to worry - most likely, it is just his specific feature. In most cases with age weight is normalized. The attention is required by unexpected weight reduction - at the same time the child usually becomes sluggish, quickly gets tired, badly eats and sleeps. For clarification of the reasons it is necessary to see a doctor.- it is possible
, weight reduction is connected with a lack of vitamins?
- Directly, most likely, is not present. But shortage of micronutrients, including also vitamins, usually is followed by decrease in the general tone of an organism, deterioration in appetite and a dream that can lead also to loss of weight. Parents have to know that even the most full-fledged diet cannot provide the child with necessary amount of micronutrients. Therefore daily reception vitaminno - mineral additives is recommended to children. It is not a trick of producers of vitamins, but the evidence-based fact.
needs to Apply vitamins two times a year - in the spring and in the fall, the course has to sostavlyat1 - 2 months.
of Research is shown that it is better to accept vitamins and minerals at different times day. So they are better acquired and work more effectively. Also, choosing polyvitamins, surely pay special attention to a dosage, especially it concerns import vitamins. Gipervitaminoz can do not less harm to a children`s organism, than shortage of vitamins. Especially as the child receives part of useful substances with food.
- Knows that in a preparation time or storages of food many vitamins are lost. Whether there are ways to keep them?
- to keep the maximum quantity of useful substances, it is necessary to know what they “are afraid“ of. So, for example, vitamins A and E when heating do not collapse, however are very sensitive to a sunlight and oxygen. Therefore vegetable and butter it is impossible to leave on light and in open ware. Do not love light the B1 and B6 vitamins which are contained in bread, pasta and soy and also vitamin K with which spinach and cabbage are rich.
Very whimsical vitamin - With, or ascorbic acid. Many mothers like to polish potatoes since evening and to leave it for the night in water that in the morning to weld. However at the same time potatoes, as well as other vegetables, lose the most part of vitamin C. For the same reason it is undesirable to cut and grate vegetables and fruit - cages collapse and the enzyme ascorbate oxidase which is quickly destroying ascorbic acid is released. If the child is already able to chew independently, to give him vegetables and fruit entirely better.the Wrong thermal treatment of products leads
to loss of vitamins too. Leads frying to the greatest destruction of vitamins. And least of all them it is lost at steam boiling, roasting in a foil or in a pot. When cooking in water vegetables need to be lowered not in cold, and in the boiling water to neutralize ascorbate oxidase. It is important not to digest food also. Potatoes, for example, varitsya10 - 20 minutes, cabbage - 20 - 25, carrots, onions, vegetable marrows after browning - 10 - 15 minutes. At the same time the pan where vegetables cook, has to be surely densely closed by a cover and is filled up to the top.
For the best safety of vitamins should cook products in ware from stainless steel or aluminum.
- And from what ware it is better for child to eat?
- the Best ware for the child - made of unbreakable porcelain or faience. With plastic which many priyedpochitat for the fact that it does not fight parents should be very careful - the plastic products which are not intended for the food purposes can emit toxic agents. > Tableware for children it is better for p to choose
from stainless steel, cupronickel, and ideally - from silver which possesses antimicrobic action. The wooden ware should not use as in a time of a tree microbes can be late. Souvenir wooden spoons and bowls are suitable for use as toys more.It is desirable for
that the child had an own set of ware and tableware, and also napkins and kitchen towels. Children`s accessories surely have to be stored separately from adults.
- What you would call the most important principle of food of children of 1 - 6 years?
- Perhaps, most important - a quiet, attentive and caring attitude to the child, being guarantee of maintenance and good health and healthy nutrition. It is very important that the food was the most various and included all groups of products. Follow a professional advice, but at the same time consider needs of the kid, you appreciate in him identity. And then it will please you with a good health and good mood.