Healthy food of children from a year to three years of
Every year the child`s diet approaches the adult more and more. In a year after the birth a gastrointestinal tract it becomes considerable more mature, physical and informative activity, energy consumption considerably increases. However digestive functions of a stomach, intestines, liver and pancreas do not reach at this time a full maturity yet. Quite often at this age various chronic diseases of a gastrointestinal tract at children originate, their general physical development is broken, abilities to training decrease. Therefore parents need to belong with special attention to quantity, quality, structure of food, the meal mode.the Volume and caloric content
the General power value of a daily diet of the child of 1 - 1,5 years makes
to 1300 kcal. The child who stepped polutoragodovy a boundary needs about 1400 - 1500 kcal, and three-year-old 1550 - 1600 kcal a day are necessary already. As for division of daily volume (including on caloric content) on separate feedings, it is possible to distribute more and more or less evenly - a breakfast and a dinner 25%, a lunch - 35%, an afternoon snack - 15%.
Of course, the volume of food depends also on appetite of children. If the child has a good appetite, do not abuse it, do not accustom him to excessively plentiful food. Sooner or later it will lead to an excess zhirootlozheniye and violation of health of the child. If appetite is reduced and the child not always eats the food offered it in enough, then he should organize temporarily the fifth meal as an additional dinner at 21 o`clock or an early breakfast if the child wakes up too early - at 5 - 6 o`clock in the morning. On additional meal it is usually recommended to give a glass of warm milk, kefir or yogurt with cookies or a piece of a roll.
Processing of food
the Important point in food of children of 1 - 3 years are requirements to culinary processing of food. Till one and a half years soups and porridges prepare wiped, and meat and fish - in the form of a souffle, steam cutlets, meatballs. Vegetables and fruit are also given mainly in the form of mashed potatoes though also the small shredder sometimes is good. From one and a half to three years special mechanical and heat treatment of food - though not so careful as earlier is still actual. Well razvarenny porridges, gentle baked puddings and other dishes of more or less dense consistence gradually force out mashed potatoes, traditional for earlier age, and a souffle from a diet of the kid. The majority of second courses still prepares cooking and suppression, but also the first fried, for example, low-fat cutlets appear. >
In food of children it is good to p to use specialized products of industrial production. These are dry quick-cooking cereals, dry milk drinks, canned, fish and vegetable meat, fruit purees, juice. Such products solve an array of problems: save parental time, guarantee an optimality of composition of nutrients, ecological and epidemiological safety.
the Food is digested in the child`s stomach on average during 3, - 4 hours therefore intervals between meals have to be approximately equal to this time. Hours of feedings have to be constants, deviations from the determined time should not exceed 15 - 30 min. It is important to pay attention to inadmissibility of reception of any food between feedings, especially sweets. If to speak about food frequency, then it is recommended to feed the child four times a day. However for children of 1 - 1,5 years also the fifth (night) feeding is allowed.
High-protein food (meat, fish) children have to receive in the first half of day as it long is digested in a stomach, and in the second - easier (dairy - vegetable, carbohydrate).we will consider
A now what products and in what quantities are necessary for the child aged from a year till three years.
Of course, in a diet of the child who overcame an annual boundary, the important place still belongs to milk. The kid at the age of 1 - 3 years surely has to receive 400 - 600 ml of dairy products a day (taking into account those that are used on preparation of various dishes). Milk is the main source of digestible salts of calcium and an important source of B2 vitamin, substances, so necessary for growth of the child. Milk, kefir, yogurt have to join in a diet of children daily, and cottage cheese, cream, sour cream and cheese can be used through one - two days, but respectively in bigger quantity.
according to children`s nutritionists, at this age the most part of all proteins arriving with food have to have an animal origin. It promotes high comprehensibility of protein and deduction in a nitrogen organism. For an organism of the kid says about exclusive importance of the last at least the fact that without nitrogen synthesis of DNA and RNA - the connections leading all biochemical processes proceeding in a human body is impossible. The most important source of animal protein is meat, however not all its types are useful to children of 1,5 - 3. So, pork and meat of some birds (ducks, geese) contains surplus of the refractory animal fats which are excessively loading a gastrointestinal tract of the child. Therefore it is better to choose low-fat beef and veal, and also meat of hens, chickens, turkeys, a rabbit.
Very useful product for children of a year is fish. Protein of fishes is full and digestible. Within a week the child can train four - five days of a dish from meat and two - three days - from fish. If meat and fishes are given in one day, their portions reduce. It is better to use low-fat grades of sea and river fishes (a pike perch, a cod, a hake, a grouper, etc.) .Many parents ask
a question of advantage of red and black caviar. Undoubtedly, this product possesses high nutritional value. All types of caviar are rich with protein, fat and fat-soluble vitamins A and D. Odnako caviar it is necessary to give to children gradually and infrequently as it contains a lot of salt.
in food of children eggs as they contain many vysokousvoyaemy nutrients are of Great importance: proteins are acquired for 96 - 97%, fats - for 95%. The yolk of egg contains a complex of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, phospholipids and various mineral substances and minerals. However, despite usefulness of eggs, in food of the child it is impossible to abuse them as they are capable to cause allergic reactions. Eggs use only in abruptly welded look or in the form of various dishes (an omelet with milk or fresh vegetables, egg salads, cheesecakes etc.) but not in the raw.
For children of a year as sources of fats use creamy and vegetable oil (sunflower, corn, olive, etc.) . Vegetable is a rich source of vitamin E and polynonsaturated fatty acids, and creamy - vitamin A. It is better to use oils in the natural form: creamy in sandwiches and ready vegetable purees or razvarenny porridges, and vegetable for seasoning of salads, vinaigrettes, and the same ready porridges or mashed potatoes. Children of 1 - 1,5 years need about 12 - 15 g of creamy and 3 - 5 g of vegetable oil a day, and 1,5 - 3 respectively to 17 g and to 6 g a day.
Bread and grain
of Grain, bread and bakery products enter an obligatory daily diet of the child of 1 - 3 years, providing an organism with carbohydrates and proteins. At the age of 1 - 1,5 years from grain are most important oat and buckwheat, but also others are quite admissible - yachnevy, pearl-barley, wheat etc. In food of children of three-year age rice, buckwheat, oat and semolina grain are used. Porridges can be cooked with milk and without milk, with an additive of vegetables or fruit. For example, porridge with apple, with raisin or banana, rice porridge with pumpkin or carrots, buckwheat cereal with apple is very useful and tasty. In total grain the child needs 15 - 20 grams a day. > a priority it is better for p to give
At the choice of bakery products to products from coarse flour which is vitamin-rich groups B and the food fibers stimulating work of intestines. Children of 1 - 1,5 years need 30 - 40 g of bakery products a day, 1,5 - 3 - 50 - 100 g a day.
Vegetables and fruit
Fruit, berries, vegetables and greens are an obligatory component of baby food. They are an irreplaceable source of vitamins C, P, pro-vitamin A (carotene), digestible carbohydrates - glucose and fructose, organic acids, pectins and food fibers, some minerals and minerals.
In a daily diet of the kid of 1 - 3 years. They are useful as in a raw state, providing good training of the chewing device and zheludochno - an intestinal path, and in the form of the svezheotzhaty juice rich with vitamin C. In day the child of 1 - 1,5 years needs about 80 - 100 ml, and 1,5 - 3 - 100 - 150 ml of juice.by
From vegetables most often use potatoes, carrots, cabbage, turnip, beet, vegetable marrows, pumpkin and tomatoes. Are quite actual (in the absence of specific contraindications) garden and wild-growing greens - fennel and salad, spinach and parsley, a sorrel, green onions and garlic, a ramson, a nettle. From fruit apples, pears, plums, bananas, citrus, tropical fruit are useful to children. From berries raspberry and blackcurrant, a black-fruited mountain ash, a gooseberry and a sea-buckthorn, and also bilberry, cowberry, a cranberry are recommended. Gradually and carefully entering fruit, berries and vegetables unfamiliar to it into a diet of the kid, be attentive - in cases of emergence in the child of skin or other allergic reaction, exclude a product from the child`s diet. >
In food of children it is useful for p to use all seasonal fruit, berries, vegetables and greens in the natural form, and also in the form of juice and mashed potatoes, in winter time it is possible to give tinned juice and mashed potatoes, compotes and other preparations along with natural fruits.
the child`s Diet at the age of 1 - 3 years surely has to include the sugar providing expeditious intake of the substances energetically especially valuable to the growing organism. The standard daily rate of sugars makes about 35 - 40 g for children of 1 - 1,5 years and 40 - 50 g for kids of 1,5 - 3.
the Source of sugar. From the last cookies, wafers, a fruit candy, fruit jelly, fruit caramel, jam, jam, jam and honey are recommended if the child transfers it. Chocolate and chocolates increase excitability of nervous system, can cause an allergy therefore it is not necessary to give often them to children.
At children, in connection with their high mobility, losses of water are very notable therefore they cannot be limited in drink. But to compensate a lack of liquid by sweet compotes, juice, drinks does not follow as it leads to appetite oppression. Whether to allow to drink during meal or not to give - depends on specific features of the child. If the child experiences difficulties with a proglatyvaniye and from - for it eats slowly and with a reluctance, then, of course, it is better to wash down food with its water.water has to be always available to
In intervals between meals to children. Usually give the svezhekipyacheny water cooled to room temperature, table still mineral water or poorly brewing tea. It is also possible to recommend herbal teas, for example, from fennel or a camomile which promote improvement of activity of intestines and possess soothing action.