Rus Articles Journal

Food of mother and kid during breastfeeding of

Mother and the child make a whole not only for nine months of pregnancy, but also in the period of breastfeeding. Therefore also food of the kid in the first year of his life completely depends on how his mother eats.

For natural feeding

Gynecologists came to a conclusion that the risk of developing of a breast cancer is higher at those women who refused breastfeeding. Besides, restoration of an organism after the delivery happens much quicker if mother feeds the kid with the milk, during feeding in an organism of the woman special hormone oxytocin promoting the best krovenapolneniye and a tone of a uterus is produced.

But how feeding by a breast was important for mother, it to any comparison does not go with that benefit which is brought by maternal milk to the kid. Breastfeeding exerts multilateral impact on physiological, emotional and mental development of children, formation of their behavior, resistance to action of adverse external factors.

by

Still did not invent worthy substitute to women`s milk. It contains the substances, most important for the little man, in the most exact proportions set by the nature.

are a part of maternal milk :

Experts are convinced by

that there is nothing better than maternal milk for the kid in the first year of his life. The nature resolved an issue of food of the person from his birth.

the Lactation

the Lactation is a process of production of milk chest gland. The first drops of milk in a mammary gland of mother appear the first minutes after the delivery. In two weeks maternal milk will significantly change. In the first 5 days after the delivery breast milk represents colostrum, then - transitional milk, and only with 15 - go day of a lactation mature milk appears.

of the Loudspeaker of a chemical composition of women`s milk in the course of its maturing
(per 100 ml)

of
milk Feedstuffs Colostrum (1 - 5 day) Transitional milk (6 - 14 day) Mature milk (more than 15 days) the Content of feedstuffs in mature milk (% of content in colostrum)
of Squirrels, 2,3 1,6 1,1 47
Fat, 2,9 3,5 4,5 155
Lactose, 5,7 6,4 6,8 119
Power value, kcal 67 73 75 112
Vitamin A, mg 0,16 0,09 0,06 37
Carotinoids, mg 0,14 0,04 0,02 14
Vitamin E, mg 1,5 0,9 0,2 13
Sodium, mg 50 30 17 34
Potassium, mg 74 64 50 68
Calcium, 46 34 71
Zinc, mg 5,5 3,8 1,2 21,8
Selenium, mkg 42 - 15 35

Early applying to a breast

For the subsequent successful feeding by a breast the first applying it is desirable for mg to carry out 48 the first 30 minutes after the birth when reflexes of the child and sensitivity of a complex of pacifiers - an areola are highest. These first minutes of the life the kid receives only several drops of colostrum containing valuable feedstuffs and protective factors.

the First applying to a breast does not carry out

how many - nibud significant function of food. The average of amount of the colostrum arriving to the child makes about 2 ml. At the same time even this droplet plays an important role in formation of protective functions of an organism of the little man, but also, is an important point of stimulation of a lactation and ensuring its success and duration.

Within the first 0,5 - 2 hours after the birth most of newborns are capable to find and take independently an areola of a maternal breast without the aid of mother.

Early applying of the child to a breast not only stimulates with

education and secretion of milk, but also promotes faster otkhozhdeniye of a placenta, prevention of postnatal bleedings at women in labor, and also to formation of normal intestinal microflora, the adequate immune answer and acceleration of an otkhozhdeniye of the activity waste which collected during stay in a womb at newborns.

a number of contraindications to early applying to a breast from mother and from the child Exists. Recently the rodorazresheniye by Cesarean section at happy end is excluded from these lists. The child is put to a breast in several hours after the end of action of an anesthesia. Within the first days it is made several times.

is important

for a full-fledged lactation the mode of free feeding from the first day of life of the child. Understand applying of the child to a breast as free feeding so many time and in such time in what the child, including night hours demands. Night feedings - fine means of maintenance of a lactation as at night in a hypophysis more Prolactinum, the main hormone stimulating a lactation, than in the afternoon is produced.

Decantation breast milk can turn out

expedient only during the early period of establishment of a lactation, in the absence of a possibility of “free feeding“ of the child or at inability of the kid for one reason or another to effective suction of colostrum or milk. Indications to decantation of breast milk are also diseases of mother, temporary separation of mother and child, study or work of mother. In other cases to decant milk or colostrum there is no need. Feeding of the kid

it is important to p to remember

that feeding by a breast is also communication of mother and kid. Therefore long ago it is noticed that children who grew up on maternal milk more fine, are more sociable, their peers who grew up on artificial mixes are more active and even more skillfully, than.

the First half a year of life the kid can eat

only mother`s milk, his gastrointestinal tract is not adapted for processing some other food yet. Only in the second half of the year the time for an additional feeding up comes.

to

For feeding of children of the first months of life recommended the free mode of feeding. The child himself determines applying frequency to a breast, and the number of feedings can make up to 12 and more times a day! The kid exhausts 80% of necessary milk in 8 minutes, but the general duration of feeding can make and 20 minutes.

How to define that the kid receives enough food? Experts recommend to pay attention to the following criteria:

  • for the first month the child has to put on the weight of 600 - 800 grams;
  • the frequency of urinations is not less than 6 times a day;
  • the frequency of a chair corresponds to the number of feedings (6 - 10 times) in the first month of life;
  • the child is quiet
  • , maintains intervals between feedings 2 and more than an hour.

the Only element which does not need to be added to a diet of the kid is a vitamin D. Unfortunately, it is not enough in women`s milk, and the lack of this vitamin can lead to development of rickets. But it is necessary to remember that any innovations in a diet of the kid should be discussed with the doctor at first.

For successful breastfeeding, especially in the first days, the child`s dopaivaniye water, glucose, etc. is extremely important to exclude

of Dopaivaniye. Breast milk contains up to 80 - 90% of water, and at the sufficient level of a lactation completely provides need of the child for liquid. Dopaivaniye of the baby can create at him false feeling of saturation and refusal of a breast.

“Forward“ and “back“ milk

In the first days after the birth mother nurses the child in one feeding of one. After “arrival“ of milk it is possible to feed the child each feeding from both breasts, so that feeding downloaded from that breast with which began, and the child received not only the “forward“, but also “back“ milk differing twice in higher content of fat.

of the Technician of feeding

From that, how exactly mother gives a breast to the kid, efficiency of all procedure of feeding both for mother, and for the kid depends. Necessary conditions of the correct technology of feeding is the correct position of the child at a breast, the correct capture by the child of a breast, a convenient pose of mother, contact “skin to skin“ during feeding.

the Correct position of the child at a breast is characterized by the following signs:

  • the head and a body of the child are in one plane;
  • the child is in the raised situation (for the purpose of prevention of swallowing air together with milk);
  • the chin of the child touches mother`s breast;
  • for
  • of companies it is widely open, the lower lip is twisted outside.
the Child has to take

at the same time not only a nipple, but also an areola. A nipple together with an areola have to fill with themselves all oral cavity of the child actually. Good deep capture provides to the child sufficient ease of sucking, and for the feeding woman is the main guarantee of safety of a nipple and an areola.

the Feeding up

to

How maternal milk was useful for

, gradually there is a need for expansion of a diet of the kid. The growing before the eyes organism needs more and more energy, feedstuffs and minerals (protein, iron, zinc, etc.) . Besides, the gastrointestinal tract and the chewing device of the kid have to be prepared for “adult“ food gradually.

Most of researchers agree in opinion that the feeding up needs to be entered not earlier than 4 - 6 months. Though the kid and till 6 months can eat only maternal milk.

of
of Name of products and dishes of Age (months of life) of Note
of 0 - 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 - 12
of Fruit juice (ml) 5 - 30 40 - 50 50 - 60 60 70 80 90 - 100 since 3 months.
of Fruit puree (ml) 5 - 30 40 - 50 50 - 60 60 70 80 90 - 100 since 3,5 months.
of Cottage cheese (g) 10 - 30 40 40 40 50 since 5 months.
of the Yolk (piece) 0,25 0,50 0,50 0,50 since 6 months.
of Vegetable puree (g) 10 - 100 150 150 170 180 200 since 4,5 - 5,5 months
of Milk porridge (g) 50 - 100 150 150 180 200 since 5,5 - 6,5 months
of Meat mash (g) 5 - 30 50 60 - 70 since 7 months
of Kefir, etc. fermented milk products or whole milk (ml) 100 200 400 - 600 since 7,5 - 8 months
of white bread, since () 5 5 10 since 7 months.
of Crackers, cookies 3 - 5 5 5 10 - 15 since 6 months.
of Vegetable oil (sunflower, corn) 1 - 3 3 3 5 5 6 since 4,5 - 5 months.
of Butter 1 - 4 4 4 5 6 from 5 months

has to contain In food which is given to the kid as a feeding up enough iron. Iron which contains usual products is acquired much worse, than contained in maternal milk. Shortage of iron can lead to development of anemia.

Gradually the set of “legal“ products increases, and by 8th month it is possible to carry out a feeding up already twice a day. The more becomes firm food, the less kid receives the digestible substances which are contained in mother`s milk.

Expansion of a diet demands

from parents of the kid of great attention and patience. There is day after day a preparation of a gastrointestinal tract for that the kid could eat “as the adult“. Some children by 9th month pass to independent, “adult“ food, others will finish the transition only by the beginning of the second year of the life.

Artificial nutrition

Artificial feeding is applied by

in cases when milk at mother completely is absent or it is not enough. At artificial feeding of the child of the first months of life it is impossible to transfer suddenly or too quickly to qualitatively new food as adaptation of a gastrointestinal tract and exchange processes happens at the same time to big tension.

maternal milk is the best of all to replace with the adapted mixes

(i.e. the mixes as close as possible on structure to women`s milk). These mixes are intended for feeding of the child from the first days of life to a year.

Use in recent years of new generation of the adapted dairy mixes as close as possible to composition of women`s milk, allowed to reduce significantly the adverse effects of artificial feeding, in particular, concerning physical development and incidence of babies.

At the mix choice, the most adequate for feeding of the specific child, it is necessary to consider:

  • Age of the child. In the first 2 - 3 weeks of life it is more preferable to child to appoint fresh mixes, and then to combine fresh and acidified milk formulas. The most expedient is their equal ratio in a diet. Surplus of acidified milk formulas in a diet can cause (or to strengthen) vomiting, to break kislotno - alkaline balance in an organism.
  • Degree of adaptedness of mix. The age of the child is less, the more it needs most adapted mixes. The child till 5 - 6 months should not appoint “the subsequent mixes“, kefir and other not adapted acidified milk formulas, whole cow`s milk at all.
  • Individual tolerance of mix.

One of the conditions providing normal development of the child at artificial feeding is feeding on appetite. At the same time hours of feeding are observed, and the quantity of food in each feeding is given to the child on requirement. It is not necessary to give violently all appointed amount of mix or to refuse small additional amount.

Depending on appetite the child in one of feedings can eat more norm, in another it is less, but he has to receive day norm surely. The weight of the child should be checked every month.

of
of Name of products and dishes of Age (months of life)
of 0 - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 - 12
of the Adapted dairy mix (ml) 700 - 800 800 - 900 800 - 900 800 - 900 700 400 300 - 400 300 - 350 200 200
of Fruit juice (ml) * according to indications 5 - 30 40 - 50 50 - 60 60 70 80 90 - 100
of Fruit puree (ml) ** according to indications 5 - 30 40 - 50 50 - 60 60 70 80 90 - 100
of Cottage cheese (g) * 40 40 40 40 50
of Yolk (piece) 0,25 0,5 < small> 0,5 0,5
of Vegetable puree (g) ** 10 - 150 150 150 170 180 200
of Porridge (g) 50 - 150 150 170 180 200
of Meat mash (g) 5 - 30 50 50 60 - 70
of Kefir, etc. fermented milk products or whole milk (ml) *** 200 200 400 400
of Bread (g) 5 5 10
of Crackers, cookies (g) 3 - 5 5 5 10 10 - 15
of Vegetable oil (sunflower, corn) 3 3 3 5 5 6
of Butter 4 4 5 5 6

* Depending on a state of health of the child and extent of adaptation of the substitute of women`s milk used in his food.

** In 2 weeks after juice introduction.

If necessary perhaps earlier introduction (since 6 - 7 months)

the Mother`s diet

Each feeding mother has to understand

that from what she eats, food and development of her kid depends. Therefore during breastfeeding the mother`s diet has to consider both requirements of an organism of the woman, and that interrelation in which there are mother and her kid.

Experts say

about what food of the nursing mother has to provide:

  1. Satisfaction of all physiological needs of mother for energy and main substances.
  2. the Additional supply with energy and feedstuffs necessary for production of enough milk with a high nutrition value.
  3. Prevention of receipt with troubles of mother in an organism of babies of the products containing the obligate allergens and connections capable to cause irritation mucous a digestive tract (essential oils, peroxides of fatty acids, etc.)
Therefore food of the nursing mother a little what differs in

from food of the pregnant woman. The diet both has to include all main groups of products - meat and meat products; milk and dairy products; bread, grain, pasta; vegetable oils; vegetables, fruit, juice; sugar and confectionery.

it is more preferable to p to use different types of meat (beef, low-fat grades of pork, mutton, chicken, a turkey, a rabbit), but not sausages, sausage or sausage. Low-fat grades of fish (a pike perch, a cod, a carp, a hake, etc.) are very desirable. It is necessary to use widely cottage cheese and cheese at the expense of which it is the most expedient to increase amount of protein in a diet.

Surplus in a diet of whole cow`s milk can cause allergic reactions in children therefore it is recommended to replace it with various fermented milk products (kefir, yogurts, fermented baked milk, etc.) .

As many feedstuffs get through mucous intestines of women into a blood-groove, and from there and in women`s milk, it is necessary to avoid in a diet of women of large amounts of salt, essential oils, the products containing obligate allergens. Diets of nursing mothers should not include onions, garlic, snack canned food, chocolate, nuts, honey, eggs, shrimps, large numbers of a citrus, tomatoes, strawberries. It is especially important to exclude alcohol intake even in the smallest doses and smoking.

Reference. The following products belong to obligate allergens:

  • Honey
  • Nuts
  • Citrus
  • Strawberry
  • Chocolate and chocolate products
  • Red grades of apples
  • Tomatoes, pineapples
  • of the Smoked product, caviar
  • Fish, eggs
  • Fresh milk

by means of a diet the feeding mothers can regulate

  • of Canned food and quantity milk. To stimulate a lactation, specialists of Danon Institute recommend to make and take independently drinks from carrots, seeds of salad, caraway seeds, an anise, fennel, dandelion leaves.

    Extremely important for maintenance of a full-fledged lactation is drinking regime of mother. She has to drink in addition to usual volume not less than 1000 ml of liquid in the form of tea, juice, drinks, etc.

    When to wean

    If mother, and the kid want to continue feeding by a breast, then in combination with a feeding up it can proceed till 1,5 - 2. However often children begin to refuse a breast when “I“ begin to be formed own. On the third year of life breastfeeding continuation would already interfere with normal development of the identity of the kid therefore further feeding is already inexpedient.

    By the beginning of the second year of life the kid did huge work: it learned to eat. The whole 9 months till the birth he had not to use so many efforts being full. Moreover, some children by 12 months took the first serious steps eating independently - just as adults!