Professor I. Kon about food of children of the first year of life of
When the kid is born, the happy and loving parents seek to provide it at once good nutrition that it grew healthy and happy. But right there is a set of questions and doubts: the grandmother advises one, the pediatrician another, and the neigbour, mother of three children, - the third. Once children`s doctors unanimously advised to feed children strictly on hours, and now all stand up for feeding on demand. Still quite recently the point of view was popular that at night the stomach of the child has to have a rest, and today it is proved that night feedings are simply necessary both for the child, and for mother. To facilitate life to parents, we asked in Institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science the most frequent questions of food of babies.with
our questions are answered by the head of department of baby food of Institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, the doctor of medical sciences, professor Igor Yakovlevich Kon.
- Igor Yakovlevich, one of the most frequent and controversial issues today - a question of duration of natural feeding. About what month it is necessary to nurse?
- If to speak about ideal terms, then about one year, and even till 1,5 years. But, unfortunately, not everyone to the woman is possible to feed the child so long. Statistically, in Russia to 60% of children in 3 - 4 months are deprived of maternal milk. The result is far from an ideal. It is possible therefore to tell that the minimum duration of natural feeding, necessary for health of the child, - till 4 - 6 months. If there is opportunity, that is it is enough milk, living conditions allow, then, certainly, it is better to feed longer. And it is better not only for the child, but also for mother, for her health and health.
- But, say that at some stage breast milk loses the unique properties and therefore to feed with it the child becomes it is useless?
is a good justification for women who do not want to feed long. Yes, over time the role of protective properties of milk decreases - at the child own immunity is formed.
But it does not mean at all that the value of natural feeding decreases. It is worth to remember that besides protective function the most important purpose of milk is a food, i.e. providing the child with all feedstuffs, vitamins and minerals, moreover, applying to a breast is very important for the kid too. There are researches confirming the value even of incidental feedings with a breast of the child of the second year of life since it gives to the child not only food, but also feeling of rest, safety and confidence in mother`s love.
- Recently mothers often come to work, having hardly managed to give rise. Respectively, it is not possible to put the child to a breast in the afternoon. Whether it is possible to feed the child with the decanted milk regularly?
Anyway maternal milk even if and decanted, it is better, than artificial mix. Therefore if the woman all day at work, then decantation - quite good option of feeding of the kid. Especially as milk at storage rather well keeps the properties: in the refrigerator - days, and in the freezer - till 3 months. At the room temperature it is stored till 8 o`clock, in the refrigerator - 3 days, and in the freezer - till 3 months. It is obligatory to store milk in special containers, and it is better - in disposable sterile plastic bags. It is necessary to defreeze milk only on a water bath, watching that its temperature did not rise higher than 36,6 degrees - otherwise enzymes collapse and immune properties are destroyed. It is impossible to warm in the microwave oven and to freeze repeatedly. In general, rules simple, and advantage for the child big.
- Turns out, even lack of free time cannot excuse for refusal of natural feeding. And what if the child himself refuses a breast?
- If the child himself refuses tasty maternal milk and for joy which is given by contact with mother, so there are some serious reasons which spoil to it all pleasure. Perhaps, mother just incorrectly sits or holds the kid why he feels discomfort. Or the child incorrectly took a nipple and swallows air together with milk. Mother can have an excess of milk, and then it flows too quickly, and the kid chokes, does not manage to swallow. Also feeding on hours, but not upon the demand of the child, a teething can become the reason. We mean taste and a smell of maternal milk not less - it will hardly be pleasant to the child if mother begins to feed him after gorges on garlic or onions, for example.
also the smell of various medicines with which the woman greases a breast can Frighten off the child from a breast. For example, some doctors advise to apply to prevention of an inflammation antiseptics, aloe juice, beeswax. It is not necessary to do it. Milk possesses disinfecting properties. Before feeding it is necessary to decant a drop of milk and to moisten with it skin around a nipple.
Besides, it is frequent children flatly refuse to suck a breast, having tried milk from a small bottle, - from a pacifier it is much easier to drink. It is possible to try to give to get hungry a little to the kid, and then to offer a breast. If scandals continue then there`s nothing to be done - it is necessary to decant milk in a bottle and to feed so. Though all - a small bottle for the child not the best choice.
- When the child sucks a breast, he should use the efforts to be sated, and it is not casual. At most of children at the birth the lower jaw is slightly less than top. And that their sizes were leveled, quite intense sucking at which the lower jaw is pushed forward is necessary. It just is also provided at natural feeding. It is useful even to decant partially a breast if mother has a lot of milk and from the child special efforts are not required.
When not to do without pacifier, it is the best of all if it is elastic, short, with several small openings - such that after capsizing of a small bottle milk followed drops. During feeding from a small bottle the child has to work, extending jaws. The small bottle should be held so that it did not put pressure upon the child`s jaws.
- Happens that the feeding woman catches a cold, it increases temperature, the throat hurts. Whether it is possible to continue to feed - the child can catch through maternal milk?- to Continue to feed with
it is necessary. The matter is that by then when at mother cold symptoms only begin to be shown, the child already managed to receive with milk an infecting agent, and also ready antibodies to it. It is not necessary to decant and boil milk as at the same time not only the virus, but also all protective factors - and as we remember collapses, the child already caught, and now protection, but not prevention is necessary for it. Maternal milk just also provides full immune protection against an infection, and also against the possible accompanying complications.
By the way, it belongs not only to banal ORZ, but also to the majority of infectious diseases (flu, a mumps, staphylococcus, a streptococcus, pyelonephritis, mastitis, etc.)
- But mothers should be treated, that is to take medicine. Means, all - should be interrupted feeding with a breast?
- no At all. Interruption of a lactation is shown seldom or never when it is impossible to find the preparation compatible to feeding a breast. However most often it is possible to find such medicine. There are even antibiotics which reception does not damage health of the child.
- whether at the child the allergy to maternal milk Can arise?
- Such cases are rare. The nature provides that maternal milk as much as possible suited the kid. There are even results of researches which show that milk is created “under the specific child“. So if the child - an estestvennik had some reddenings on skin, then, most likely, business not directly in milk. Often the reason is covered in substances which got to it after mother ate something “wrong“. That is the products possessing high ability to cause an allergy. I would advise to treat more attentively in such cases the diet, to exclude “doubtful“ products from a diet, and if in several days symptoms do not disappear, then it is necessary to see a doctor.
- the Frequent question which interests mothers: to give to drink or not to give to drink to the kid?
- When breastfeeding the child`s dopaivaniye water or other liquid is extremely important to exclude. Breast milk contains 80 - 90% of water and at the sufficient level of a lactation completely satisfies need of the child for liquid. It is important to know that the dopaivaniye of the baby can create false feeling of saturation because the centers of thirst and satiety in a brain of the baby practically coincide. The child thinks that he is full and refuses a breast that as a result can lead to loss of weight. If the child, on the contrary, weighs too much for the age, then this problem is solved not by a dopaivaniye, but other methods, for example, reduction of duration of feedings and increases in their frequency, etc. And the rare child will drink water after milk - not to pour in it violently!
As for artificial feeding, here everything depends on type of mix and specific features of the child so to give to drink or only the attending physician decides to give to drink.
- And how experts treat night feeding?
- numerous supervision Are, to prove that night feedings are fine means of maintenance of a lactation. This results from the fact that at night in a hypophysis more Prolactinum - the main hormone stimulating production of milk is produced. For night feedings it is convenient to take the child in a bed that he could suck a breast during a dream. By the way, for the child it is absolutely safe to sleep near mother. It sensitively reacts to the kid, to any his stir or a sound. Mother can continue to sleep under a sharp sound of an alarm clock, but the slightest peep of the child immediately will force it to wake up. She can lay down on the kid in a dream only if it is seriously sick, accepted sleeping pill or is in a state of intoxication.
- How many one feeding has to continue?
- should not Limit feeding duration - let the child suck a breast how many he wants. Otherwise it can not be sated as will not receive the “last“ milk which is necessary for it for the normal growth as contains twice more fat, than an initial and average portion of milk. It is especially actual in a case with “lazy“ kids who suck very slowly - 30 and more minutes. You should not refuse to the child at all.
- But whether can lead long feeding to an inflammation of nipples and cracks?
is a delusion. Similar troubles arise in that case when the kid incorrectly took a nipple. Usually it is followed by quite painful feelings, an inflammation which can develop into a crack. It is impossible to suffer from pain, it is necessary to interrupt feeding and to provide the correct capture - such at which in a mouth of the child there is not only a nipple, but also part of an areola. Also at the correct sucking of a cheek of the child round, without dimples. It is not necessary to take away a breast, with effort pulling out it from the child`s mouth, - it is so possible to injure a nipple. It is necessary to implant a little finger into a corner of a mouth of the child - and he will easily release a breast. If sucking happens correctly, then brings only pleasure to the kid and mother.
- What to do if the child asks to eat too often? Whether it is impossible to overfeed him?for
Unfortunately, it is possible. Therefore it is very important to understand - why the kid cries. The kid can shout for the most different reasons, it is not obligatory for hunger. If he ate recently, did not srygnut, diapers dry, then, perhaps, he just wants a portion of communication, maternal heat, and not milk at all. Or he is disturbed by intestinal gripes - quite frequent problem at babies, or to him hot or on the contrary cold. Mother should learn to differentiate shout of the child, to understand it. With experience it comes.
- And how the child who has intestinal gripes shouts?
Usually it is long crying which do not help to stop either a motion sickness, or caress. Gripes are a state, very unpleasant for the kid, - in intestines gases accumulate, stretch it, hurting. But besides shout there are also other symptoms: a tummy at gripes hard, as though mumpish. It is very important to facilitate tortures of the child.
- As to make it?needs to be provided to
At natural feeding first of all adequate composition of women`s milk. The nursing mother has to exclude from a diet products with the high content of lactose. That is if mother constantly uses milk or, for example, frozen, then it can gain one of the reasons developments of gripes. That it did not occur, it is necessary to replace milk with fermented milk products. It is not necessary to use the products rich with starch, and also causing persistent gas generation in intestines. These are potatoes, bananas, nuts, grapes, cabbage, a garden radish, a radish, etc. Besides, it is necessary to exclude products with high ability to cause an allergy.
If these methods did not work, additional inspection of the child is necessary for clarification of the reasons of gripes. >
At artificial feeding it is very important to p to pick up the mix corresponding to digestive features of the child. Be frequent on mixes, identical on structure, different reaction can. If the child has gripes, it is necessary to try to transfer gradually him to other mix, perhaps, his state will improve. Perhaps, the child just receives too large amount of mix that complicates digestion. So if your child the bottle-fed baby, measure volumes strictly according to his age and recommendations of the pediatrician.
- Now it is a lot of disputes on terms of introduction of a feeding up. When it is better to begin?
At a sufficient lactation should enter a feeding up not earlier than 3 - 4 months. To this age the child is just physiologically not prepared for assimilation something except women`s milk or its substitutes. In addition, too early feeding up can reduce the frequency and intensity of sucking, so, and production of milk. While it should not replace, and supplement milk.the late feeding up - that is after 6 - 7 months is Also undesirable
. To the child milk will be more complex to adapt to food of other consistence, than.But, of course, should consider
that all this average figures. Always it is necessary to take specific features of the child into account: speed of its growth, weight and length of a body, appetite, etc. Therefore I would recommend to consult to the doctor who observes the child since the birth. It will help to avoid many problems and will seriously facilitate life to the kid and his parents.