Professor I. Kon about healthy food during pregnancy of
One of the most important questions for the woman who is going to become a mother is a question of healthy nutrition. There is nothing more important for future mother, than her health on which also health of future child depends. Today it is possible to find thousands of councils for food during pregnancy, but how to learn what of them really useful? It is difficult not to become puzzled in a huge flow of information. For an explanation of the most frequent questions we addressed the head of department of baby food of Institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science to the doctor of medical sciences, professor, the honored worker of science Igor Yakovlevich Konyu.
- Igor Yakovlevich, tell, please, once and for all, about a calcium role during pregnancy. Opinions are in this respect directly opposite: someone says that nearly doubled dose is necessary, and others claim that on late terms of pregnancy calcium is harmful because at the child the fontanel can grow that eventually can lead to patrimonial injuries of mother and child. Who is right?
Of course, calcium is very important for the woman expecting the child. Full formation of bones and teeth of a fruit requires about 1100 mg of calcium a day. It is better if this element comes to an organism in a natural look, that is from food. The known fermented milk products quite can provide all the pregnant woman with calcium completely. For example, kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese, not strong cheese and many others. And if you use these products every day, then is not obligatory to accept in addition calcium in tablets at all. At a usual diet it usually is enough.
However it concerns women who before pregnancy did not exhaust themselves strict diets, did not starve, seeking to reach forms a top - models. Otherwise the lack of many elements including calcium is observed. Then, only on doctor`s orders, it is possible to accept calcium in addition, for example, a calcium gluconate.
I still would like to calm women: that at the child the fontanel grew or there were some other changes, the connected many mineral salts, calcium is necessary just in huge doses.So to worry concerning an excess spoon of cottage cheese or a glass of kefir it is not necessary to
at all. Also there are these products it is possible on any term of pregnancy, and with a fontanel everything will be as it should be.
A about what really should think - so it of a possible lack of iron. It is more difficult to receive this element with food and therefore pregnant often appoint iron preparations for the prevention of anemia.
- By the way, about anemia. Often you hear that red wine - for prevention of deficiency of iron is useful for pregnant women. Whether so it, doctors say that alcohol is very harmful to future child?
It is unconditional, pregnant women are not recommended to take alcohol categorically, in particular in the first weeks after conception.
But if there is a strong wish, then it is possible, for example, as an exception, for New year or Birthday to drink couple of drinks. The same can be told also about coffee: yes, coffee is harmful, but if the woman before pregnancy got used to drink four cups every day, then to suddenly lose it very difficult. If there is a strong wish, then it is a little possible. Pregnancy is not nine-months penal servitude, it should not be associated with deprivations and adversities.
- What else, except alcohol and coffee, is strictly contraindicated during pregnancy?
First of all, of course, smoking. Also it is necessary to limit the products containing allergens: chocolate, tomatoes, strawberry, citrus, and also salty, spicy, smoked. And it concerns also those who never suffered from an allergy. At pregnancy the organism becomes very susceptible and who knows how it will react to this or that product. But, besides, it is about restriction, but not a total ban which violation threatens with awful trouble. No, if you got used to eat every day two oranges, then it is possible just to reduce this quantity to two segments. If at the same time there are no rashes or other allergic reactions, then it is possible to eat. Otherwise, of course, it is necessary to exclude a product from a diet.needs to be Limited to
also sweet and greasy food. In - the first, it is necessary to consider that the gastrointestinal tract of the pregnant woman works not so intensively, as in a usual state. The abundance of sweet food can cause processes of fermentation in intestines, fat - heartburn and other problems. And in - the second, the woman needs to be careful with high-calorific products not to gain excess weight.
- And whether excess weight at pregnancy is so dangerous? Most of the women expecting the child grow stout.
- Excess weight is always dangerous, and at pregnancy especially. Normal body weight has to increase by 11 - 13 kg, and deviations from these figures are adverse. Increase in weight during pregnancy can be the reason of various violations of development of a fruit. Often obesity remains and after the delivery, it is almost impossible to cope with this problem often. In most cases excess of norm of body weight is connected with incorrectly picked up diet. Then the doctor appoints the correcting diet, keeping to which it is possible to improve situation. Sometimes the woman needs treatment in a hospital.
So should think five times before sending excess cake or candy to a mouth. >
- But it is so difficult to p to limit itself in food - during pregnancy many women complain of “wolf“ appetite. What would you advise to eat it to reduce feeling of continuous hunger?
- the Feeling of hunger is reduced by products volume and slowly soaking up. But from them it is desirable for pregnant women to use the few. Cabbage, a radish, for example, as gas-forming products, it is undesirable. It is possible to advise vegetable marrows, eggplants. It is better to eat often and small portions to muffle this sucking feeling in a stomach. It is possible to have a bite some fermented milk product, a bread piece with bran. But something “sweet“ - then hunger will let know about itself very quickly and even stronger by no means. Strongly apples stimulate appetite - better to eat them during meal, but not in intervals. Unsweetened and rather weak tea reduces appetite.
But, besides, if there is an intolerable wish to eat candy or piece of cake, it is not necessary to refuse to itself it. And what especially it is not necessary to do - so it bitterly to regret for the incident and to try next day “to dump superfluous“.
- whether Can combine vegetarianism and pregnancy?
is watching what vegetarianism. If the woman refuses meat, but uses dairy products and eggs, then it is quite enough for healthy pregnancy - dairy products, and eggs contain the proteins necessary for full development of a fruit. And here full vegetarianism is very undesirable: it is very difficult to pick up a full-fledged diet from vegetable food. If all - for any reasons the use of products of an animal origin is impossible, then it is necessary very seriously treat the diet, to choose products with the high content of protein: haricot, peas, soy, grain, asparagus and others, in addition to apply polyvitamins, iron preparations. Only the doctor has to count quantity and a ratio of products. In medical practice there are cases of normal incubation of children by vegetarians, but these are rather exceptions, than governed.
- And what you will tell about a peanut? There is an opinion that it is contraindicated to pregnant women, it is the myth?
is not the groundless statement. It is based that in rare instances on a peanut at storage the special plesenny fungus which allocates an aflatoxin - toxic agent develops. This fungus can develop not only on a peanut, but also on grain, cheese. However all supply of foodstuff to Russia is carefully checked. So the peanut is dangerous no more, than any other product. Just choose the known, checked brands which guarantee quality of production, and you look at expiration dates.