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Professor I. Kon about healthy food during pregnancy of

One of the most important questions for the woman who is going to become a mother is a question of healthy nutrition. There is nothing more important for future mother, than her health on which also health of future child depends. Today it is possible to find thousands of councils for food during pregnancy, but how to learn what of them really useful? It is difficult not to become puzzled in a huge flow of information. For an explanation of the most frequent questions we addressed the head of department of baby food of Institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science to the doctor of medical sciences, professor, the honored worker of science Igor Yakovlevich Konyu.

- Igor Yakovlevich, tell, please, once and for all, about a calcium role during pregnancy. Opinions are in this respect directly opposite: someone says that nearly doubled dose is necessary, and others claim that on late terms of pregnancy calcium is harmful because at the child the fontanel can grow that eventually can lead to patrimonial injuries of mother and child. Who is right?

Of course, calcium is very important for the woman expecting the child. Full formation of bones and teeth of a fruit requires about 1100 mg of calcium a day. It is better if this element comes to an organism in a natural look, that is from food. The known fermented milk products quite can provide all the pregnant woman with calcium completely. For example, kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese, not strong cheese and many others. And if you use these products every day, then is not obligatory to accept in addition calcium in tablets at all. At a usual diet it usually is enough.

However it concerns women who before pregnancy did not exhaust themselves strict diets, did not starve, seeking to reach forms a top - models. Otherwise the lack of many elements including calcium is observed. Then, only on doctor`s orders, it is possible to accept calcium in addition, for example, a calcium gluconate.

I still would like to calm women: that at the child the fontanel grew or there were some other changes, the connected many mineral salts, calcium is necessary just in huge doses.

So to worry concerning an excess spoon of cottage cheese or a glass of kefir it is not necessary to

at all. Also there are these products it is possible on any term of pregnancy, and with a fontanel everything will be as it should be.

A about what really should think - so it of a possible lack of iron. It is more difficult to receive this element with food and therefore pregnant often appoint iron preparations for the prevention of anemia.

- By the way, about anemia. Often you hear that red wine - for prevention of deficiency of iron is useful for pregnant women. Whether so it, doctors say that alcohol is very harmful to future child?

It is unconditional, pregnant women are not recommended to take alcohol categorically, in particular in the first weeks after conception.

But if there is a strong wish, then it is possible, for example, as an exception, for New year or Birthday to drink couple of drinks. The same can be told also about coffee: yes, coffee is harmful, but if the woman before pregnancy got used to drink four cups every day, then to suddenly lose it very difficult. If there is a strong wish, then it is a little possible. Pregnancy is not nine-months penal servitude, it should not be associated with deprivations and adversities.

- What else, except alcohol and coffee, is strictly contraindicated during pregnancy?

First of all, of course, smoking. Also it is necessary to limit the products containing allergens: chocolate, tomatoes, strawberry, citrus, and also salty, spicy, smoked. And it concerns also those who never suffered from an allergy. At pregnancy the organism becomes very susceptible and who knows how it will react to this or that product. But, besides, it is about restriction, but not a total ban which violation threatens with awful trouble. No, if you got used to eat every day two oranges, then it is possible just to reduce this quantity to two segments. If at the same time there are no rashes or other allergic reactions, then it is possible to eat. Otherwise, of course, it is necessary to exclude a product from a diet.

needs to be Limited to

also sweet and greasy food. In - the first, it is necessary to consider that the gastrointestinal tract of the pregnant woman works not so intensively, as in a usual state. The abundance of sweet food can cause processes of fermentation in intestines, fat - heartburn and other problems. And in - the second, the woman needs to be careful with high-calorific products not to gain excess weight.

- And whether excess weight at pregnancy is so dangerous? Most of the women expecting the child grow stout.

- Excess weight is always dangerous, and at pregnancy especially. Normal body weight has to increase by 11 - 13 kg, and deviations from these figures are adverse. Increase in weight during pregnancy can be the reason of various violations of development of a fruit. Often obesity remains and after the delivery, it is almost impossible to cope with this problem often. In most cases excess of norm of body weight is connected with incorrectly picked up diet. Then the doctor appoints the correcting diet, keeping to which it is possible to improve situation. Sometimes the woman needs treatment in a hospital.

So should think five times before sending excess cake or candy to a mouth.

- But it is so difficult to p to limit itself in food - during pregnancy many women complain of “wolf“ appetite. What would you advise to eat it to reduce feeling of continuous hunger?

- the Feeling of hunger is reduced by products volume and slowly soaking up. But from them it is desirable for pregnant women to use the few. Cabbage, a radish, for example, as gas-forming products, it is undesirable. It is possible to advise vegetable marrows, eggplants. It is better to eat often and small portions to muffle this sucking feeling in a stomach. It is possible to have a bite some fermented milk product, a bread piece with bran. But something “sweet“ - then hunger will let know about itself very quickly and even stronger by no means. Strongly apples stimulate appetite - better to eat them during meal, but not in intervals. Unsweetened and rather weak tea reduces appetite.

But, besides, if there is an intolerable wish to eat candy or piece of cake, it is not necessary to refuse to itself it. And what especially it is not necessary to do - so it bitterly to regret for the incident and to try next day “to dump superfluous“.

- whether Can combine vegetarianism and pregnancy?

is watching what vegetarianism. If the woman refuses meat, but uses dairy products and eggs, then it is quite enough for healthy pregnancy - dairy products, and eggs contain the proteins necessary for full development of a fruit. And here full vegetarianism is very undesirable: it is very difficult to pick up a full-fledged diet from vegetable food. If all - for any reasons the use of products of an animal origin is impossible, then it is necessary very seriously treat the diet, to choose products with the high content of protein: haricot, peas, soy, grain, asparagus and others, in addition to apply polyvitamins, iron preparations. Only the doctor has to count quantity and a ratio of products. In medical practice there are cases of normal incubation of children by vegetarians, but these are rather exceptions, than governed.

- And what you will tell about a peanut? There is an opinion that it is contraindicated to pregnant women, it is the myth?

is not the groundless statement. It is based that in rare instances on a peanut at storage the special plesenny fungus which allocates an aflatoxin - toxic agent develops. This fungus can develop not only on a peanut, but also on grain, cheese. However all supply of foodstuff to Russia is carefully checked. So the peanut is dangerous no more, than any other product. Just choose the known, checked brands which guarantee quality of production, and you look at expiration dates.

- Still would like to learn

why it is impossible to eat canned food what in them is harmful? Whether it is possible to drink juice in packages, or they are considered as canned food too?

- should tell At once that not preservation, that is thermal treatment of products, and substances which often add after that for long safety, improvement of taste, color is harmful. But, for example, to children`s canned food of such substances it is not added therefore these products can be eaten safely.

As for juice - can drink them, having only attentively studied information on a label - whether there are no preservatives or dyes. And of course, it is worth to remember about an allergy. It will be more reasonable to refuse orange, tangerine, grapefruit juice, cherry, pineapple, and to choose apple, pear, plum. It is better to drink juice for baby food, and ideally - natural.

- And as far as it is necessary to limit the liquid use?

- at the beginning of pregnancy of restriction of liquid are not so actual. In the second trimester the daily volume of liquid has to make about 3 glasses (it besides soup, fruit, fermented milk products and dr). The third trimester is closer, the it is more than restriction. it is still very important to p to note

I that pregnant women need not so much restriction of the liquid, how many the products containing sodium. As such food promotes a water delay in an organism. In - the first, it is table salt, sodium contains also in tomatoes, in tomato juice much, it is slightly less in milk. The marinated cucumber or herring are admissible only on early terms; the time of childbirth is closer, the less salt has to be used.

- How to prevent disorders of digestion which arise during pregnancy?

- to Warn - hardly because sooner or later practically each pregnant woman faces these problems, and it is possible to tell that they are inevitable. In - the first, it is difficult for intestines to work at full capacity as to it it becomes just close from the increased uterus. And in - the second, during pregnancy there is a hormonal reorganization directed to decrease in a tone of a uterus. It leads to easing and other smooth muscles including muscles of intestines. Tendency of many pregnant women to locks turns out to be consequence of it.

it is possible to p to Improve physical activity of intestines. For this purpose it is necessary to include in a diet more products rich with cellulose, especially cereals, fruit and dried fruits, vegetables (beet, carrots), bread with bran or from whole grain, etc. In smaller quantities - potatoes, cabbage. It is useful to limit the products causing gas generation: cabbage, radish, grapes, black bread, nuts, sweets.

Processing of products matters too. It is better not to fry food, and to extinguish or cook because when frying specific substances which can cause irritation mucous a stomach are formed.

Digestive frustration can be also a consequence of dysbacteriosis, that is violation of balance of intestinal microflora. The quantity of useful bacteria decreases, and their place is taken by putrefactive microbes. The best solution of this problem for pregnant women - pro-biotic fermented milk products. They contain the bacteria similar to that inhabit intestines of the healthy person (a bifidobacterium, a lactobacillus). Eating them, we increase quantity of useful bacteria in intestines, and those in turn fight against harmful microbes better.

- whether It is possible, proceeding from it, to tell that the diet of the pregnant woman has to be brought closer to a diet zheludochno - the intestinal and kidney patient?

- Yes, it is right. Owing to many reasons digestive, and secretory systems during pregnancy are very subject to various frustration. We already spoke about problems with digestion, and as for kidneys, on them additional loading lays down. The secretory system of the child works through mother. Limiting the use of liquid and salt, we help kidneys and we facilitate the general state.

- Often the woman takes symptoms of digestive frustration for the beginning of fights. Whether it is possible to distinguish these states somehow?

- it is unconditional. Fights are always powerful pristupoobrazny pains, and it is simply impossible to mix them with something. Happens that the woman, having felt small pain in the lower department of a stomach, begins to panic and get ready for premature birth. No, pains at the coming childbirth are incomparable with intestinal gripes so it is not necessary to worry once again. If all - there are doubts, it is better to consult to the doctor.

- What you will tell about food on the eve of and right after childbirth - what it is better to eat at this time?

- Just before childbirth it is better for strong to pass to an easy diet - fruit, fermented milk products, juice. But if the woman cannot starve, then and it is not necessary to exhaust itself.

Right after childbirth very few people can brag of good appetite. Better during this period to drink more.

Though until recently the opinion that it is impossible to drink categorically existed, now it is challenged as not having under itself the reasons. It is possible to drink and it is necessary - first of all for the best lactation. Juice, fermented milk products. Also fruit baby purees, squashes are quite permissible.

I of course, a lot of things depend on a condition of the woman after the delivery. Someone for the second day independently goes, and someone needs the long recovery period with a bed rest. In total very individually.

- And the last question: whether formation of high mental capacities of the child can guarantee healthy nutrition?

- I will answer so: the healthy nutrition during pregnancy is an indispensable condition, but all - insufficient. That is the full-fledged diet cannot guarantee the genius`s birth, takes place also a genetic factor. And here to lower intellectual potential of the child, eating incorrectly, very much it is even possible. Future mother has to make everything from her depending for the birth physically and mentally healthy child. Pregnancy and healthy food are inseparable.