The Japanese education of
the Japanese mother comes to a hairdressing salon with the little little son. At first the peanut patiently waits until it finishes all procedures, and then, without having sustained boring expectation, begins to open jars with creams and to draw intricate patterns on a mirror. All look at it with a smile, and nobody does the remark: all is possible for the small child.
Everything is good in its season
the Period of “permissiveness“ at the kid proceeds till only 5 years. To this age Japanese treat the child, “as the king“, from 5 to 15 years - “as the slave“, and after 15 - “as with equal“. It is considered that the fifteen-year-old teenager is already the adult who accurately knows the duties and perfectly submits to rules. The paradox of the Japanese education consists in it: the disciplined and law-abiding citizen grows up from the child to whom in the childhood all allowed. However you should not hurry with transferring of the Japanese methods of education to the Russian reality. It would be wrong to consider them in a separation from outlook and a way of life of Japanese.
Yes, to small children in this country are allowed by all, but in 5 - 6 years the child gets to very rigid system of rules and restrictions which accurately order as it is necessary to arrive in this or that situation. It is necessary to submit to them as all so do and to arrive in a different way - means “to lose face“, to appear out of group.“ To all the place“ - one of the basic principles of the Japanese outlook. And children acquire it from the earliest age.
of Tradition and the present
the Traditional Japanese family is mother, the father and two children. Earlier family roles were accurately differentiated: the husband - the getter, the wife is a keeper of the center. The man was considered as head of the family, and all house had to implicitly it submit. But times change. Recently influence of the western culture affects, and the Japanese women try to combine work and family duties more and more. However to equality with men it it is still far. The house and education of children remains their major activity still, and life of the man is absorbed by firm in which he works.Such division of roles finds
reflection even in etymology. The Shirokoupotrebitelny word in relation to the wife is the noun Cana which is literally translated “indoors“. And it is accepted to address the man syudzin - “the main person“, “owner“. Subordination is traced also in the attitudes towards children. In Japanese there are no words “brother“ and “sister“. Instead of them tell Ania`s (“elder brother“) and otooto (“younger brother“), ane (“elder sister“) and imooto (“younger sister“). Therefore the idea is higher - and subordinate never leaves consciousness of the child. The eldest son is distinguished considerably from other children, he is considered “the successor of a throne“ though the throne is all - navsy the parental house. The senior child has more rights, but respectively and more duties.
Earlier marriages consisted in Japan on arrangement: the husband and the wife were chosen by parents, in view of a social and property status. Now Japanese even more often marry on mutual sympathy. But the parental duty obviously prevails over emotional communications. In Japan there are stains too, but their percent is much lower. Orientation of Japanese to group consciousness at which interests of group (in this case families) are put above individual affects.mother is engaged in
in Education of the child. The father can take part too, but it happens seldom. of Amae - so call mothers in Japan. It is difficult for this word to pick up analog in Russian. It means feeling of dependence on mother which is perceived by children as something desirable. The verb means an amaera “to use something“, “to be spoiled“, “to look for protection“. It gives an essence of the relations of mother and child. At the birth of the kid the midwife cuts off a piece of an umbilical cord, it is dried up and put in a traditional wooden box the size slightly more matchbox. On it gilded letters beat out a name of mother and date of birth of the child. It is a symbol of communication of mother and baby.you will seldom see
In Japan crying the baby. Mother tries to make so that at it was not for this occasion. The first year the child as if remains part of a body of mother which for days on end carries it attached behind the back, puts at night to sleep near itself and gives a breast at any time when he wants. The Japanese industry even lets out special jackets with an insert on lightnings which allow to carry in front of the child. When the kid grows up, the insert comes unfastened, and the jacket turns into usual clothes.
to the Child is forbidden nothing, from adults he hears only cautions:“ dangerously“, “dirty“, “badly“. But if he all - hurt or burned, mother considers guilty herself and apologizes at it for the fact that she did not save.
When children start walking, too practically do not leave them unguarded. Mothers continue to follow the peanuts literally close. Quite often they will organize childish sports in which they become active participants.
of the Father appear on walk only during week-end when all family leaves in park or on the nature. And in bad weather large shopping centers where there are game rooms become a venue of family leisure.Boys and girls are brought up by
differently, they should carry out various social roles. One of the Japanese sayings says: the man should not come on kitchen. In the son see future support of a family. In one of national holidays - Day of boys - in air images of multi-colored carps lift.
is fish who can go long against the stream. They symbolize a way of future man capable to overcome all vital difficulties. Girls learn to perform homework: to prepare, to sew, erase. Distinctions in education affect also at school. After lessons boys surely visit various circles in which they continue education, and girls can quietly sit in cafe and chat about dresses.
the Most terrible - loneliness
Japanese never raise the voice on children, do not reprimand them, not to mention corporal punishments. The method which it is possible to call “alienation threat“ is widespread. The most severe moral punishment is the excommunication from the house or opposition of the child to some group.“ If you behave so, all will begin to laugh at you“, - mother says to the disobedient little son. And for it it is really terrible as the Japanese does not think of himself out of collective. The Japanese society is society of groups.“ Find group to which you would belong, - the Japanese morals preach. - Be faithful to it and rely on it. Alone you will not find the place in life, will get lost in its artful designs“. That is why the loneliness is taken by Japanese very hard, and the excommunication from the house is perceived as a real crash.the Japanese never tries to approve by
the power over children as, in her opinion, it leads to alienation. She does not argue with will and desire of the child, and shows discontent indirectly: lets know that she is very much afflicted by his unworthy behavior. At emergence of the conflicts the Japanese mothers try not to be discharged of children, and on the contrary, to strengthen remove emotional contact. Children, as a rule, so idolize the mothers that they have sense of guilt and repentances if they cause them troubles.
Japanese were one of the first who began to speak about need of early development. Half a century back in the country there was a book “After Three Already Late“ which made revolution in the Japanese pedagogics. Her author, Masaru Ibuk - the director of the Training of Talents organization and the founder of world famous firm Sony. In the book it is said that in the first three years of life the foundation of the identity of the child is laid. Small children are trained in everything much quicker, and a task of parents - to create conditions in which the child will be able to realize the abilities completely. In education it is necessary to follow the following principles: to stimulate knowledge through arousing interest of the kid, to form character, to promote development of creativity and various skills. At the same time the task not to grow up the genius, and to give to the child such education that “he had deep mind and a sound body, to make it clever and kind is set“. Now such point of view seems obvious, but in the middle of 1950 - x it sounded in a revolutionary way.
we Go to kindergarten
Usually Japanese mother stays at home until the kid is three years old then he is sent to kindergarten. In Japan there is also day nursery, but education in them the small child is not welcomed. On general belief, mother has to look after children. If the woman sends the child to a day nursery, and itself goes to work, then her behavior often is considered as egoistical. Say about such women that they are insufficiently betrayed to a family and put the personal interests on the first place. And in the Japanese morals public always prevails over personal.Types of kindergartens
Kindergartens of Japan share
on state and private. Huikueng - state a day nursery - a garden in which accept children since three months. It is open from 8 in the morning to 6 in the evening and in the afternoon on Saturday. To place here the child, it is necessary to prove it by very good reasons. In particular, to bring documents that both parents work more than 4 hours a day. Children are arranged through municipal department of the residence here, and payment depends on the income of a family.
Other type of kindergartens - etien . These gardens can be both state, and private. Children are no more than 7 hours, usually from 9 in the morning to 2 one o`clock in the afternoon here, and mother works less than 4 hours a day.
a Specific place among private gardens is held elite which are under the care of prestigious universities. If the child gets to such kindergarten, then for its future it is possible not to worry: after it he is admitted to university school, and from it, without examinations, to university. The university diploma is a guarantee of prestigious and well paid work. Therefore to get to an elite garden very difficult. To parents arrival of the child in such institution costs huge money, and the child has to pass rather difficult test.
the Situation in kindergarten looks, to our measures, very modestly. Having entered the building, the visitor gets to a big corridor, on the one hand which there are sliding windows from a floor to a ceiling, and with another - sliding doors (an entrance to rooms).
As a rule, one room serves as both the dining room, and a bedroom, and the place for occupations. When dream time comes, tutors get from the built-in cases futons - thick mattresses - and display them on a floor. And during a lunch in the same room from a corridor bring tiny little tables and stools.to
to Food in kindergartens pays special attention. The menu is carefully developed and surely includes dairy products, vegetables and fruit. Pays off vitaminno - mineral structure of dishes and their caloric content. If the kindergarten goes for the whole day on walk or excursion, each mother has to prepare for the child obento - a box with a lunch. But if we in similar cases are limited to a cutlet with vegetables or just sandwiches, then art of the Japanese mother is worthy admiration. Such lunch has to conform to obligatory requirements, namely: to include 24 (!) type of products, rice at the same time has to be sticky, but not collapse, there should not be a beet. It is desirable not to buy all food in shop, and to prepare the hands and it is beautiful to spread out in a box that the child derived also esthetic pleasure.
of the Relation in collective
of Group in the Japanese kindergartens small: 6 - 8 people. And each half a year their structure is reformed. It becomes to give to kids ampler opportunities for socialization. If the child did not have relations in one group, then it is quite possible, he will get friends in another.
Tutors also constantly change. It becomes in order that children did not get used to them too strongly. Such attachments, Japanese consider, give rise to dependence of children on the mentors. There are situations when some tutor took a dislike to the child, and with other teacher there will be good relations.What occupations take place
in kindergarten? Kids learn to read, consider, to write, that is prepare for school. If the child does not attend kindergarten, mother or special “schools“ which remind the Russian circles and studios for preschool children is engaged in such preparation. But the main objective of the Japanese kindergarten - not educational, but educational: to teach the child to behave in collective . In further life it should be constantly in some group, and this ability will be necessary. Children the conflicts which arose in games learn to analyze. At the same time it is necessary to try to avoid rivalry as the victory of one can mean “loss of the person“ of another. The most productive solution of the conflicts, according to Japanese, - a compromise. In the ancient Constitution of Japan it was written down that the main dignity of the citizen - ability to avoid contradictions . It is not accepted to interfere with quarrels of children. It is considered that it prevents them to learn to live in collective.
the Important place in system of training is taken by choral singing . To allocate the soloist, on the Japanese representations, uneducationally. And singing by chorus helps to cultivate feeling of unity.
After singing there comes the turn of sports : relays, tag, game of tag. It is interesting that teachers, regardless of age, participate in these games on an equal basis with children.
Approximately once a month all kindergarten goes for the whole day in a campaign on vicinities . Places can be the most different: the next mountain, zoo, botanical garden. In such campaigns children not only learn something new, but also learn to be hardy, with firmness to transfer difficulties.Much attention is paid by
to to applied creativity : to drawing, application, origami, oyatiro (weaving of patterns from the thin string tense on fingers). These occupations perfectly develop small motility which is necessary for school students for writing of hieroglyphs.
In Japan do not compare children among themselves. The tutor will never note the best and to abuse the worst, will not tell parents that their child badly draws or best of all runs. It is not accepted to allocate someone. The competition is absent even in sporting events - the friendship or, as a last resort, one of teams wins. “Be not allocated“ - one of the principles of the Japanese life. But it not always leads to positive results.
the Reverse of the medal
the Main objective of the Japanese pedagogics - to bring up the person who is able to work well-coordinated in collective. For life in the Japanese society, society of groups, it is necessary. But the distortion towards group consciousness leads to inability to think independently. Moreover, the idea of compliance to the uniform standard so strongly takes roots in consciousness of children that if someone from them and expresses the opinion other than opinion of the majority, it becomes object of sneers or even hatred.
It is the phenomenon today it is especially widespread in the Japanese schools and received the name “idzime“ (the concept close to our army “hazing“). The non-standard pupil is poisoned, often beaten. Japanese also perfectly see negative sides of the pedagogical system. Today in the press it is much told about “sharp requirement for the creative person“ and need to reveal exceptional children already at early age. But the problem remains unresolved so far.by
observe in the Land of the rising sun also the phenomena which are peculiar also to Russia: grows inthe fantilizm of teenagers, arises rejection by youth of criticism from adults, aggression in relation to seniors including to parents is shown. But a sensitive and caring attitude of adults to children, attention to problems of new generation, responsibility of parents for destiny of the child - quality which can quite learn from Japanese, despite all our distinctions in mentality.