Game “Let`s play lives of the child of younger age of
!“ - as often we hear this request from children. And what huge pleasure they test when we agree. We can stay the patient or the seller, the pupil or a clumsy bear. Usually, playing with the child, we follow his desire: he explains to us what should be done. And we if decided to give it pleasure, obediently fulfill all its requirements.
However game is not only pleasure and pleasure for the child that in itself is very important. The child fixes skills which he seized recently in game, develops the most important parties of the mentality. Children in game feel independent - voluntarily communicate with peers, realize and deepen the knowledge and abilities. Playing, children learn world around, study colors, a form, properties of material and space, get acquainted with plants, animal, adapt to variety of the human relations, etc.
In game at the child his such opportunities which are not realized in ordinary life yet reveal. It is similar by sight in the future. In game the child is stronger, kinder, is more hardy, is more bright, than in many other situations. And it is natural.
the Child has to correlate the desires to desires of other children, otherwise it just will not be accepted in game. He can be capricious with parents, tutors, but only not with partners in game. Game develops communicative abilities at the child, he has to learn to establish a certain relationship with peers. Accepting this or that role, the child acquires also standards of behavior, necessary for execution of this role, but not just behaves as a wish arose at present. He has to be gentle and careful as the parent, kind and attentive as the doctor, polite and accurate as the seller.
Game forms both informative abilities, and the speech, and randomness of behavior. As it is sometimes difficult for the child to operate itself, especially the movements. At the same time it is rather simple to tell the clumsy child that now he will be a hare and has to jump so that it was not heard by a fox, and all his movements will become exact.
Example from practice. Children in a garden impulsively played with each other. Each child went about the own business: drew, made a lunch, swung dolls, played in shop and just ran. They were so keen on games that did not even pay attention that in group there was an improbable shout which muffled them. On requests of the tutor to behave more quietly, children almost did not react. But here the adult loudly told:“ Children, let`s present that we are small fishes in the sea. We will inflate cheeks and we will float to travel. And as all of you know, fishes are not able to talk, they are silent as if they kept silent“. And, of course, after this offered game, children calmed down and with great pleasure began to represent fishes. In group the silence set in.Collective game demands
from the child of mobilization of all his forces and opportunities: both physical, and intellectual. Game is especially exacting to development of the speech of the child: he has to explain, in as as would like to play, agree with the peer. Therefore those children who begin to speak late or their speech has violations, experience difficulties in games with peers. In such cases it is necessary to connect as soon as possible experts and to establish causes of infringement. The same situation develops when when changing the residence the child breaks a language barrier, beginning to speak foreign language. It is very important to give him psychological assistance in time, otherwise almost nobody will play with the child.
Game violently develops imagination of the child: from chairs he constructs the train, from cubes garage. The child constantly improvises in game. Tries to involve all and all around itself. It is good when the adult helps to think out plots, and, above all - directly participates in game. It it not just gives the child joy, and helps it with development.
Children, watching adults, seek to imitate them in everything, to live with them as equals, reproducing in game that it is close and interesting to them (actions of people in life, labor processes, the relations of people to each other, their rest, entertainments etc.) . In these games the subject, contents, sequence of the displayed events is important (the driver drives the car, the pilot - the plane, mother teaches the daughter, and not vice versa). Such games are called creative, syuzhetno - role-playing games. They are inherent in the child after 3 - 4 years.
the Age periods of game at children of younger age
In 2 - 3 years the child seizes subject actions, easily transfers them from one subject to another. The kid feeds a doll with a stick - a spoon, displays before it toy pebbles - cutlets, puts her to bed in a box - a bed.
At this age, playing, children repeat actions of the adults surrounding them, equating themselves to them. Game at younger children generally results from the subject which fell into hands since each new subject is a new game.Game actions of children of younger age are still extremely sketchy
. They are not connected in a whole. The adult helps the kid to approach the first syuzhetno - to role-playing games. The most important not to complicate game by long roles, to try “to recover“ separate objects for the child, to think up together what it is possible to play with them and to participate surely in game.
the Adult has to teach the child to use objects - deputies in order that it could pass to to subject game . This transition is important for further mental development of the child. It is possible to suggest the kid to shake a doll, to bath and feed it, to put to bed, cook macaroni from a grass. It is also possible to make fire, using branches, to bake there potato, replacing it with cones, to make sand pie, using a bucket for a form. Usually subject game begins with the fact that the adult shows separate actions, and then the child uses these actions and in other situations.
a Considerable role in development of the child is played of game - dramatization . As a plot it is possible to use the Russian national fairy tales:“ Kolobok“, “Teremok“, “Turnip“, etc. Beating these fairy tales, children actively acquire the role relations, emotionally - means of expression (learn to speak for characters of the fairy tale, to change intonation, tempo of speech, to imitate the movements of animals).
Many parents are afraid of the fact that their children strongly are fond of game and do not pay attention to what occurs in real life at all. But whether so it actually? It only seems that the child, playing, leaves from reality. Actually he is able to follow logic of reality. Here a practical example, game which was offered children.
Fairy tale “Three Bears“
Instead of bears offered children the whole matches and halves (with previously cut off sulfuric heads), and instead of beds - matchboxes.
Purpose : Children had to choose
what subject will be replaced by this or that character.
All children, even the smallest, equally made the choice: half-matches is Mishutka, the whole matches - mother and the father, boxes - beds etc. When to them suggested to make other choice (half-matches - mother, and whole - Mishutka), children quite seriously spoke:“ So does not happen“.
But subject game, game with objects by deputies is only the prerequisite developed syuzhetno - a role-playing game which becomes the leading activity at preschool age. >
children - summer age a basis of game have p 3 - 4 a reproduction of the relations among themselves. The world opens to children more and more stoutly. They already see that the driver not just twists a wheel, but also enters certain relations with passengers that the doctor not just gives an injection to the patient, but also communicates with it. The relations between adults, features of their communication become the central moment in games of preschool children.
But to reproduce these relations, it is necessary to keep up a certain game role. That is, to execute those duties which are imposed by each role and to carry out those rights which are granted by it. The doctor is obliged to be polite and attentive with patients, to observe necessary sequence of actions at treatment. At the same time he has the right to use toys - attributes which it has. The patient is obliged to carry out doctor`s instructions, but at the same time has the right to complain of the most various diseases, to demand new drugs.
In order that roles were more “developed“, preschool children pass from separate actions with toys (feeding, clothing, laying to sleep) to reproduction of the whole chain of actions. Gradually the child begins to carry out the assumed role.
the Example of the role-playing game organized by development of a chain of actions
the Content of game :
Together with the kid to cook a dinner for a doll. To feed her, then together to wash and clean ware. Then, to undress her and to put to bed in a bed. Then it is possible to be engaged in chores: to wash dirty things, to dust etc.
In this game we see sequence of game actions, and it lifts it on higher level.
Later kids learn to play plots of fairy tales, movies, make scenarios for games. Development of plots of childish sports more is defined by the adult who acquaints the kid with different spheres of life, enriches and develops his game activity, teaches it practically to everything.
our duty - to watch the child as it plays on the street, with peers whether is able to agree with children about performance of the role. To help it with it. But to do it it is imperceptible, easy. Collective game develops ability to establish the relations with peers at the child. If the child had difficulties, the adult has to help him to choose a plot, to explain how it is better to cast, and, of course, to become the partner in game. Helping the child to improvise on the game course, the adult develops creative imagination of the kid, ability to quickly reconstruct the relations with partners.
of Game, the developing skills of communicationEducational psychologists are developed by
fine programs of the developing occupations for preschool children which are aimed at the development of skills of communication in children of preschool age.
the Offered group games are based on the relations of game partnership, with voluntary participation of each child in what is accepted all. Rivalry is with each other inadmissible. The contents and rules of games exclude reasons for the conflicts and mutual pushing away, promote development by children of such skills of communication as contact establishment with each other, ability to interact with peers, to concede and constrain the direct motives, to choose the partner in game or joint activity.
Game 1. Be inflated, a bubble!
(Development by children of skills of establishment of contact with peers, manifestations of mutual attention and respect.)
of the Problem of game :
to Teach the child to consecutive performance of two roles - invited and inviting, to give it the chance to feel attention of other children and most to show this attention. Game requires big coherence of movements and attention to the partner.
Description of game :
the Adult approaches one of children and invites him to play (“What is your name?“, “Mashenka, we will go to play!“ ). Having taken the child by hand, the adult approaches with him the following kid and asks, what is his name. Repeating a name of the child, he suggests also it to join and offer Mashenke`s hand. Three together they go to invite the following child etc. When all children are invited, they together with the adult join hands, forming a circle (“ Look how there is a lot of us! What big circle turned out as a bubble! - the adult speaks. - And now, give, make a small circle“). All together become a close circle and begin “to inflate a bubble“, taking steps back. At the same time the following words are pronounced: “Be inflated, a bubble, be inflated big, remain such and do not burst!“. When the big circle turns out, the adult enters it and speaks: “The bubble burst!“ All clap, say “Crack“ and run together to the center. After that game is started anew.
of the Rule of the game :When the bubble is inflated by
- - to move back and by the end of the text to join hands. “Crack“ hands are separated by
- On the word, and all run to the center. To give a hand to any who was near.
Game 2. Roundabouts
(Development of ability to the coordinated interaction, abilities to subordinate the actions to interests of group.)
Problem of game :
to Teach children to coordinate the movements with each other and with a text rhythm that is very useful for development of acoustical attention and management of the movements.
Description of game :
This game also begins with the consecutive invitation each other children in the general game.
When all participants of game gather in the general chain, it becomes isolated and formed a circle.“ Now we will ride a roundabout, - the adult says. - Repeat words after me and circle amicably that the roundabout did not break“. Holding hands, children together with the tutor move around and pronounce the following words:“ Hardly - hardly, hardly - roundabouts were hardly started turning. And then, then, then all run, run, run! Ran, ran, ran! More quietly, more quietly, you do not hurry, stop a roundabout. Time - two, time - two (pause). Here also game came to an end“.
of the Movement :
At first a roundabout slowly moves in the right side. Tempo of speech and the movements gradually accelerate. On words “ran“ a roundabout changes the direction of the movement. Rate of the movement is gradually slowed down, and in words “time - two“ all stop. Then children gather in a circle, and game is started anew.
of the Rule of the game : >
- it is strong to p to hold each other by hands that during the movement the circle did not break.
- to Face towards the movement of a roundabout.
- to Submit to the general rate of the movement and amicably chorus to pronounce words.
Game 3. Dolls dance
(Development in children of ability to concede each other, to constrain the direct desires and motives.)
Problem of game :
to Teach children to perform game operations in turn, small groups. The behavior of children in game is regulated by certain requirements. Game will organize behavior of children in joint activity, learns to use the general toys, to transfer them each other.
Description of game : the Adult tells
to children: “Watch what dolls came to play with us today! Such elegant dolls, probably, very much want to dance, but they are not able to dance. They absolutely small also got used that they are taken on hands and dance with them“. Shows. Then he suggests several children to choose dolls and to dance with them (randomly).“ And now, - the adult says, - think to whom to transfer the doll“. Game continues until all children do not dance with dolls.
of the Rule of the game :everyone chooses by
- at the beginning of game to himself a doll itself, it is impossible to quarrel from - for toys. the Doll can only be transferred by
- to the one who did not dance yet.
Game 4. On Wal`s path went
(Mastering skills of the choice of the partner in joint activity, expression of sympathy and a love to the peer.)
Problem of game : to Develop
at the child active imagination. The central moment of game is the choice of the partner which is carried out by the child independently and serves as means of expression of the preference and sympathy for the peer.
Description of game :
All children go around, and somebody one (Valya) who is chosen in advance by the adult, is in the center and carries out the movements corresponding to the following words: “On Wal`s path went, Valya found slippers“. Children, being turned by hands, revolve to the right, and Valya, being in a circle, - to the left. “Valya tried on slippers, slightly put on - limped“.
(Valya represents that puts on slippers, lifting one, other leg, and then jumps on one leg as if limps.)“Valya to whom to give slippers began to choose
. To Coca slippers are good, on, put on and dance“.
(The round dance stops, all look at the middle of a circle.)Wal and Kohl`s
dance in the middle of a circle, and game is started anew.
of the Rule of the game :
- to Carry out the movements in strict accordance with the text. by
- to Choose those children who were not in a circle yet and did not dance.
in application, are entertaining and interesting. They can be seen off as indoors, and on the street. Be not afraid to experiment and think out new games for children. All games which are correctly thought up and aimed at the development of children are good if you are in them directly involved.
Game is a mirror of the life surrounding the child. Game is what unites all children, characterizes the level of their development.
We have to take all measures in order that the general mental development of the child was normal. That our children uncontrolledly did not watch on TV or to the videorecorder TV series and “horror films“, transferring their plots injuring mentality to the games, and learned world around through a prism of good and beauty. Only then game for the kid will become useful and informative. And he will receive from such game all that it is useful to it in further life.