The role and the place of radiodiagnosis in lechebno - preventive inspections of
Modern medicine has an extensive experience and ample opportunities of treatment various including most terrible diseases. However it is necessary to consider that the success of therapy, first of all, is defined by quality of diagnostics. Knowledge of doctors and patients of various diagnostic methods plays in this case not the last role. Criteria of high-quality diagnostics are:
- right choice of a method of inspection;
- an integrated approach to diagnostics - a competent combination of various techniques to observance of their certain sequence.
This article represents the review of methods of so-called medical visualization (synonyms - radiodiagnosis, diagnostic radiology) which basis obtaining the image of human organs seen by an eye as a result of passing of beams of various nature through them is.Absorption and reflection of radiation is unequal
as density of body tissues is various. Thanks to this difference the image of bodies and fabrics on the screen of the monitor or on a film also turns out.
Twenty five years ago possibilities of radiodiagnosis were limited to a x-ray method.
Today such diagnostic methods 5:
- radionukleidny visualization;
- ultrasonic research (ultrasonography);
- x-ray computer tomography (CT);
- magnitno - a resonant tomography (MRT).
At the choice of diagnostic images the doctor is guided by the following criteria:
- informational content of a method for this specific objective;
- potential harm for the patient;
- economic expenses.
to the following consequences:
- does not achieve the visualization objectives - the correct diagnosis; by
- appoint the unnecessary researches which are dragging out diagnostic process;
- the cost of diagnostic testings at unjustified purpose of KT and MPT increases.
we Will consider stages of development, an opportunity and the indication to application of the simplest and available methods of radiodiagnosis - radiodiagnosis and ultrasonography.
the Ancestor of radiodiagnosis, a x-ray method appeared after opening in 1895. x-ray radiation that gave rise to development new medical science - a radiology.
the First objects of research.by
In 1921 developed a X-ray analysis technique at the set depth - layer-by-layer, and the tomography which considerably enriched diagnostics widely entered practice.
New opportunities appeared thanks to contrasting of hollow bodies (at first bodies zheludochno - an intestinal path by introduction of a suspension a chamois - sour barium, and then vascular and uric system at introduction of liquid contrast substances). The possibility of x-ray research of vessels allowed to expand and complicate a circle of surgeries (from replacement of part of a peripheral vessel with various transplants for the purpose of restoration of a blood-groove to an aorta - coronary shunting to which the koronarokardiografiya surely precedes).
Besides, x-ray research of vessels gave an impetus to development of the new direction - X-ray surgery at which under control of the x-ray screen expansion of the narrowed vessel site, removal of atherosclerotic plaques is made.
In the face of one generation within 20 - 30 years the radiology left dark offices, the image from screens passed to telemonitors, and then was transformed in digital on the computer monitor.
B 70 - 80 - e years in radiodiagnosis occur revolutionary changes. New methods of obtaining the image take root into practice.
This stage is characterized by the following features:
- Transition just seeing the radiation (x-ray) applied to obtaining the image to other types of radiation. Among them:
- ultrasonic radiation;
- long-wave electromagnetic radiation of infrared range (termografiya);
- radiation in the radio-frequency range (a nuclear magnetic resonance - yaderno - a magnetic resonance).
- Use of the COMPUTER for processing of signals and creation of the image.
- Transition from the one-stage image to scanning (consecutive registration of signals from different points).
the Ultrasonic method of research came to medicine much later x-ray, but developed even more promptly and became irreplaceable thanks to the simplicity, absence of contraindications owing to harmlessness for the patient and big informational content.by
For a short time passable a way from seroshkalny scanning to techniques with the color image and a possibility of studying of the vascular course - doppler sonography.
of the Possibility of a method extended also due to use of intracavitary sensors: vaginal, applied in gynecologic practice, and rectal, used, generally at research of a prostate gland.Should note
that all diagnostic methods developed in parallel, in something competing, sometimes forcing out, but supplementing each other more often.
For example, long time dispute on diagnostic opportunities of a x-ray method of research of a stomach and gastroscopy went. By recognition of many experts each method has resolution and the limits, but not there is a speech about replacement with one another yet.
A here at research of a gall bladder physicians completely refused a x-ray method, having convinced that ultrasonography in this case more informatively.
of ultrasonography of heart (echocardiography), especially with the advent of Doppler devices, also practically forced out the heart X-ray analysis which is carried out with contrasting of a gullet, however cardiosurgeons quite often appoint x-ray pictures of heart.Diagnosis of diseases of uric system is carried out by
as by means of ultrasonography, especially emergency, and radiological (for example, it is possible to differentiate cysts of a kidney sine and expansion chashechno - lokhanochny system only by means of intravenous urography).
Research of mammary glands also has to be complex. The recognized algorithm at the same time is considered following: women do35 begin years research with ultrasonography and only at certain indications go then to mammography, women are more senior than 35 years begin research with mammography, and then he carries out ultrasonography.
the Computer tomography - a method of x-ray research at which detailed studying of bodies becomes possible due to obtaining layer-by-layer images that allows to study structure of fabric, to reveal even the small pathological centers.Magnitno`s
- the resonant tomography is also the method based on obtaining layer-by-layer images, but not x-ray radiation, and magnitno - a nuclear resonance is the cornerstone of it. Informational content of research is especially high for soft fabrics.should note
In the conclusion that complex diagnostics gives the best effect. Association of beam methods of research in uniform diagnostic structure increases quality of diagnostics. The doctor - the beam diagnostician can develop the optimum plan of inspection, is competent add one research by another. Such approach accelerates the inspection period, reduces costs of them, allows to avoid diagnostic mistakes.