Psychology of sexual distinctions in development of mental abilities (part 2) of
(the first part can be read here.) >
It is supposed p that sexual distinctions in development of abilities svyazanys impact of sex hormones on formation of brain structures the vprenatalny (prenatal) or pubertatny (puberty) period.
Though some researchers consider that sexual distinctions vzritelno - spatial abilities arise in a podrostkovomvozrasta, there are data that boys in 8 - 9 years to a znachitelnoluchsha of girls use visual support for orientation a vprostranstvo. And even distinctions of a vponimaniya of the spatial relations were found in younger children. When in experiment of shestiletnikhdety asked to design three-dimensional model of their school room, it turned out that boys cope with a task much more precisely.are insignificant
Among pupils of elementary school of distinction in the level of matematicheskikhsposobnost of boys and girls, they nachinayutproyavlyatsya at teenage age also concern generally slozhnykhform mathematical thinking; over the years distinctions increase in urovnematematichesky endowments in favor of young men. In the same vremyadevochka which at younger school age dreamed of progress to a vshkola about future achievements, showed good matematicheskiyesposobnost, at teenage age begin to dream of close friendship, popularity, sympathies of people around.it would Seem to
, these features of development of abilities of boys and devocheklegko are explained by impact of sex hormones on the teenager`s brain. However a number of researches showed that girls at whom the level of a man`s gormonatestosteron in blood is carried out by tests nazritelno higher, best of all - spatial perception, than their ordinary contemporaries. It is interesting that men have an inverse relation - the uroventestosterona is higher, the tasks nazritelno - spatial orientation are performed worse. At the same time, the umuzhchina the level of androgens in blood are lower, the it is better than a matematicheskiyesposobnost. It means that the level of the man`s gormonatestosteron influencing development of primary and secondary polovykhpriznak and “man`s“ behavior is higher the worse tests navyyavleny the abilities which are traditionally considered as man`s are carried out.
In 1961 R. E. Stafford obtained the data demonstrating that abilities to spatial imagination are transferred from the continent to the son and from the father to the daughter, but not from the father to the son. These rezultatyzastavit it to assume existence of the genetic mekhanizmanasledovaniye of spatial abilities linked to a floor. However the facts received later by other researchers to zastavlyayutusomnitsya in existence of an elementary genetic basis of polovykhrazlichiya in the informative sphere.to
It is clear that only hormonal and genetic kriteriyevnedostatochno to answer a question of sources of sexual distinctions of a vrazvitiya of mental abilities.by
most actively develop the direction connecting sexual distinctions in the informative sphere with a funktsionalnoyspetsialization of brain hemispheres Now.Biot`s
- social approach connects universality of patriarchy, domination of the man in social life, considerably big stepenmozgovy asymmetry at men and relative diffusion of a brain of women, high level of nonverbal skill and visually - prostranstvennoyoriyentation at men and the developed verbal abilities at women by sevolyutsionny process, namely with the harmonizing evolution.
So, geneticist and philosopher N. P. Dubinin stated a hypothesis that in hodegarmoniziruyushchy evolution selective advantages were got muzhchinyzanimavshiyesya hunting, design and construction of zashchitnykhsooruzheniye, and also soldiers, leaders, heads of resettlements, organizers of protection, all those who possessed luchshimizritelno - spatial abilities. At the same time proiskhodilestestvenny selection of women. According to the sexual rolyyumatera accepted by them, the keeper of the center and traditions, in the teachers of an otbiralisyindivida possessing the developed social sensitivity, razlichnymipriyema of verbal and nonverbal communication.
the question Arises: evolutionarily justified distinction of gender roles of vsotsialny activity caused sexual distinctions in development of a mozgaila, on the contrary, cerebral and mental sexual razlichiyadeterminiroval and various roles?to
by Neurobiologists it is established that sexual differentiation of a brain does not exclude its bipotentsialnost. In a brain at the same time there are dvealternativny systems: one of them actual and the opredelyaetpsikhichesky status of the person, and another is in the passive, crushed state. At hormonal influence on an opredelennyeuchastka of a brain it is possible to cause both masculine, and a femininnoyepovedeniye. Therefore, the brain contains potential vozmozhnostiprogrammirovaniye of behavior both on man`s, and on female type.to
It is clear that public representations impose opredelennyeobyazatelstvo on execution of gender roles by boys and girls, men and women that cannot but influence a polovuyudifferentsiation in development of their abilities. At the same time, polovyegormona influence distinctions in organic development of a brain since the samogoranny childhood. It is possible to assume what is available ring to a zavisimostmezhd hormones, a brain, behavior and conditions of education.
Depending on in what motivational style a vospityvayetsyarebenok, biologically predetermined lines can change, a vrezultata of the new forms of behavior which are fixed in a brain. The weight of mozgamladenets at the birth makes only 40 percent from the weight of the mozgavzrosly person. As growth of a brain is provided for schetrazrastaniye of the new bark (the highest departments of a brain) very susceptible a kvozdeystviya of factors of the environment and education, the examples of behavior which are put at children`s and teenage age naformirovany persons and abilities of the person throughout all life influence.
It is interesting, but not to mogrealizovat that at advanced age as men also zhenshchinyizbavlyatsya from the early age roles, there begin proyavlyatsyasposobnost to which the child was inclined since the childhood from - for rigid oppositions of “man`s“ and “female“ values. It is easy to assume that in a family where there is no etogoprotivopostavleniye, the child will begin to develop in compliance sosvoy tendencies, but not expectations of people around.
B 1985 of T. L. Hilton summarized results of implementation of tests a naponimaniye of the spatial relations of big selection of amerikanskikhshkolnik of the senior classes (total number of examinees more than twenty three thousand) iobnaruzhit that young men coped with them much better than girls. Comparison with data of the similar experiment executed twenty letnazad showed that distinctions between men and women for etotperiod were reduced.
in process of democratization of society mental and intellectual to a razlichiyamezhd men and women become less noticeable. Female emancipation more and more female gaining strength is dvizheniyeprivodit to the fact that women begin to be engaged in “man`s“ affairs, amuzhchina in “female“.it Is good
or it is bad? On the one hand, if men and women are not created by nature dlyaopredelenny roles, and sources of sexual distinctions in poznavatelnykhsposobnost lie only in social activity of the people who are carrying out various gender roles, the predetermined trebovaniyamiobshchestvo, then change of gender roles can lead to opredelennymsotsialny consequences.
on the other hand if gender roles are predetermined biologically, the masculinization of women and feminization of men can entail for soboygenetichesky anomalies.by
How to make everything that since the earliest childhood each child to mograzvivatsya according to the tendencies, and at the same time did not break the evolutionary progress caused by a razdelnopolost?the theory of a psychological androgeniya tries to give to
the Answer to this question. From this point of view, in public and private life the iproduktivna of the man and the woman which are harmoniously combining the psikhologicheskiyepriznak of both floors but at the same time keeping a distinct polovuyuidentichnost are most adaptive.