Martial arts of the East and West of
Today oriental martial arts already for anybody are not exotic. They are taught in numerous circles and sections, at sports schools and fitness - clubs, the rare bookstore respecting itself does not allocate several shelves, and even the whole rack under the literature devoted to them. What caused such popularity of east martial arts? Perhaps, fashion on all east and exotic or maybe such tendency is the answer to, alas, difficult today`s situation in our society when a lot of things depend on ability to protect itself. Anyway, oriental martial arts became an integral part of mass culture long ago, and therefore the number of persons interested to be acquainted with mysterious culture of the East including in such way grows every year.
It is known that if you want to achieve in something success, it is impossible to be scattered at all, spraying the efforts, and often we in life should choose. But how to make a choice if it is about a large number of types of single combats by what criteria to choose on what to stop? I will also try to deal with this question.
First of all, it is necessary to determine the concepts “fight“ and “single combat“ which are often used as synonyms, however by those not being. Fight is called the martial art in which captures are used generally, also painful receptions are bright; from this it is possible to conclude that fight demands close contact of opponents. In single combats these receptions are used along with blows, and sometimes and with impact on the opponent at distance, for example, throws of objects (how here not to remember metal asterisks which are metat by the Japanese ninjias).
of Types of east martial arts the great variety exists. They can be divided by different criteria - on the country of origin, on antiquity of traditions, on the main receptions used in them etc. I would take their popularity for criterion, and therefore I will tell about each look, passing from the most widespread to less known.
of Karate - to
What first of all occur to most of people when the speech comes about east martial arts? Of course, karate - to. This, perhaps, the most popular type of martial art arose on the island of Okinawa. Initially the word “karate-to“ meant “a way of the Chinese hand“ as its formation was influenced considerably by the Chinese martial arts, but in 1933 the master Gitin Funakosi changed in writing a hieroglyph “Chinese“ to a hieroglyph “empty“. Both hieroglyphs are read equally - “penalty“. The master emphasized with this replacement not only nature of single combat - fight without weapon - but also his independence. In 1955 there was the Japanese association of karate - to, and Funakosi became her chief instructor.
In karate the set of the directions which are strongly differing among themselves exists. The most popular among them - setokan , called by experts the alphabet of karate. Methods of fight at an average and short distance, blows legs at the lower and top level are the cornerstone. Xietuokan demands good physical training and fast reaction.
One of the youngest directions is of Kyokushin kaikan , founded in 1969. Methods of training differ in severe discipline, and, unlike other directions, the emphasis is placed not on philosophical aspects and moral self-improvement, and on fighting efficiency. One of the most difficult examinations is so-called “hundred kumite“ - hundred fights without interruption.a sieve - ryu the emphasis is placed by
In on speed of movements, the correct breath and work with the center of gravity, in other words, with ability to hold balance. This direction includes 50 kata - sets of exercises that much more, than in any other style. Some duels - ryu are carried out to a sieve in an armor in ancient Japanese style.
the Direction godzyu - ryu connects methods of karate to some elements taken from the Chinese martial arts. This style distinguishes a combination of fast and smooth movements, and also a large number of ukhod while in other directions of karate direct attack dominates.
Style of WADA - ryu , created in 1938, it is considered the most Japanese of all. In it biases and throws dominate, the special attention is paid to development of a special condition of mind.Grant
, the most spectacular style is kosik of karate - to from - for the applied shock and broskovy equipment. This direction is also quite injury-causing therefore all duels pass with obligatory use of protective equipment.
Tekvon - to
This Korean martial art is called differently: tekvon - to , taekvon - to and tkhekvon - to . Be not confused, the speech always goes about same. The first name, in my opinion, is more convenient for a pronunciation. The second latinizirovano as in Latin the combination of ae is read as “e“. The third option most precisely transfers a pronunciation and writing of this word on - Korean. The term appeared in 1955 when after World War II in Korea the system of the Korean single combats symbolizing spirit of the nation which is almost forgotten by that moment was revived. The huge contribution to revival of martial arts of Korea was made by the general Hon Hee Choi who in 1966 headed the International federation tekvon - to. Since 1988 tekvon - to it is included in the program of the Summer Olympic Games.
B tekvon - to use generally blows by legs and jumps. Any captures and blows in the head are forbidden by hands. Demonstration performances of tekvondist are very spectacular, dissecting of boards by effective blows in a jump is often shown. >
It is considered p that wushu was created by the monk Bodkhidkharma who arrived to China from India in the first half of the 4th century. In wushu a set of styles from which distinguish northern and southern, external and internal. Northern styles, or styles of the northern provinces of China, differ in the broad movements and jumps, and also a big distance between fighters. The most widespread of northern styles Chan - Quan is considered , from southern Nan - Quan is most popular style . Trained in external styles the main objective see sharpening of technology of performance of receptions while internal styles are directed to improvement of sincere qualities of the fighter. The classical representative of this group of styles it is possible to call of tai chi - Quan differing in the smooth movements and the flowing movements.
In wushu the direction of the so-called of the sports wushu combining above-mentioned styles, and also including the difficult acrobatic exercises demanding big flexibility of a backbone and elasticity of muscles of legs is.
Rather recently having appeared in Russia, aikido managed to get a certain popularity. This single combat was based by the master Morikhei Uesiba in 1945. The main concept of aikido consists in achievement of harmony by the fighter between own vital energy and world around. In fight the aykidoist seeks to use aggression of the opponent against him. This type of single combat is rather a security measure, but not attacks and therefore suits balanced, nonaggressive people. Aykidoist in short white kimonos and wide black trousers of a hakam compete that does a duel spectacular.
As karate - to and wushu, aikido has the internal directions. The most popular of them can call aikido small volumes , smech methods of traditional aikido with methods of judo. Small volumes of aikido includes competitions in the program of training that for east martial arts very atypically, it is considered that it is more important to seize a martial art, than to win at competitions against. It is worth mentioning also Tanta randor - ho , art of fight without weapon against the armed opponent. For trainings the soft knife which one of athletes is active is used, and upon completion of one duel they change roles.
Thai boxing, or muay - thaw , arose in Thailand in the 12th century in wars with China. Instead of gloves fighters wound hands with ropes, and before especially important fights even covered with glue and sprinkled with beaten glass. It is necessary to tell that it became by a mutual consent of opponents. Thai boxing is recognized by effective blows by legs, however experts say that they are used generally for staginess, but not for fighting effect. In muay - thaw blows are struck with elbows and knees. Separate competitions for fans and professionals are held and if fans act in protective equipment, then professionals act seminude, in easy boxing gloves.Thai boxing is inconceivable
without ancient rituals inherent in it. Earlier time of a duel was counted by means of a coco shell: in a half of a shell made an opening of strictly certain sizes and lowered in water. As soon as the shell sank, the duel came to an end. Certainly, many traditions in centuries sank Into oblivion, and instead of ropes boxers use gloves now, but there was a sacred dance made before a duel with the purpose to get support of spirits. The duel occurs under music. As a mascot Thais put on mongkon - a bandage the head - and pratyiat - a wrist. Now these bandages carry out the same functions, as belts in other east martial arts - designate the level of skill of the fighter.
Though muay - thaw appeared in Russia rather recently, his adherents already prophesy it the big future in our country. The first step is for this purpose taken: Moscow is already carried out regular performances both foreign athletes, and the Russian rising stars of Thai boxing.Dzhiu`s
- to a dzhitsDzhiu`s
- to a dzhits differently is called dzyu - to dzyuets and in translation from Japanese means “flexibility art“. This martial art evolved from ancient technology of fight in an armor. In equipment captures prevail, also painful receptions - impact on painful points of the opponent are bright. Now deduction of the opponent practices in a prone position.
of Judo evolved from
of Judo in Japan at the end of the 19th century to a dzhi - a dzhits. Its name is translated with Japanese as “a flexible way“. Long time of judo was not a sport, and intended as almost all oriental martial arts, for education of the identity of the fighter. However upon termination of World War II when only schools of the sports direction remained, judo turned into a sport. In 1972 by the first of east martial arts of judo it was included in the program of the Olympic Games, having debuted in Summer games in Munich. by
In judo, as well as in a dzhia - a dzhitsa, use captures and painful receptions; it is the so-called contact fight demanding contact of bodies of opponents. The fight purpose - to discompose the rival and to tumble down a back on a tatami - a carpet for fight. The kimono of judoists has short sleeves for the greatest convenience of captures.
of Single combat with use of the weapon
of Kendzyutsu is a single combat in the Japanese armor and with use of a sword. The manner of the behavior battling has to be aggressive: it frightens the rival, helps to breathe correctly and lifts fighting spirit of the fighter. In kendzyuets two types of swords - long two-handled a katana and short vakidzyas are used.
of Kendo it is similar with kendzyuets, only the sword in it is used bamboo, aerodynamically more convenient, than metal. Also the athlete is dressed not in an armor, and in a national Japanese fighting suit and a trellised mask. In kendo shout “kiay“, known to most of readers according to movies is considered important. Shout practically at all east fighting schools, but in kendo shout has especially important, almost ritual value.
of Nagintado - combat sport with use of a bamboo halberd of a naginat. It is interesting that by tradition nagintado women are engaged generally.
Now these recently absolutely unknown martial arts in our country find popularity, and it is possible to be trained in them even in fitness - the centers. It is worth meaning that in fitness - the centers lessons of these single combats, as a rule, are called bleyd (English blade - an edge) and are simplified fitness - the version. Trainers say that they the Japanese fencing - quite difficult art, and only after considerable time trained begin to feel a sword or a halberd.
In general east martial arts the great variety, and within one article exists, unfortunately, it is impossible to consider everything. However, in my opinion, penchak silat (Indonesia), yt such martial arts as in dao (Vietnam) and of a varm of a kalaa (India) will become not soon not just popular, but also how many - nibud known in our country. Persons interested can see demonstration performances on these styles at specialized festivals of east martial arts which are regularly passing in Moscow.
the East is the East, but the West tries not to lag behind it, and therefore except oriental martial arts there are several western directions which also require attention.
the Kickboxing (from English kick - a kick) is the young sport which arose in 70 - e in the USA. It is boxing mix with karate elements - to and Thai boxing. During duels boxers surely use protective equipment and boxing gloves. In equipment blows are used by legs and hands, captures and blows are forbidden by elbows, knees and the head.Competitions are held by
, as well as in Thai boxing, separately for professionals and fans. In a kickboxing is the direction full - contact , or full contact in which it is authorized to put all force in gift and even to bring the opponent to a knockout. As we see, it is quite rigid sport.
In 2000, being in Rio - - Zhaneyro, I saw street acrobats. They carried out jumps one through another, and one of acrobats somehow strange turned on the place, crossing from one leg on another and at some moment even leaning on hands. Unfortunately, in a picture the acrobat was depicted in a semi-squat standing, that is in the pose which is not giving ideas of nature of the movement at all. Then I did not know yet that the acrobat showed art capoeira - the Brazilian martial art which soon became popular and in Russia.Elements of capoeira are stylized by
under the acrobatic and dancing movements. The duel occurs under music and without contact with the opponent. The fight purpose - by means of attacks and acrobatic exercises to solve intentions of the opponent and to discompose it. In fitness - the version which offer the visitors fitness - clubs acrobatic exercises are simplified, but to seize them, it is necessary to sweat fairly.If after read you did not decide by
on for what martial art to go in, then especially for you sensey Adzuma Takasi created.
This the most universal of all martial arts was founded by Kudo`s
in 1981 and originally was called Dido`s - to a karate dzhuk - to . Senseya Takasi was not satisfied by fighting opportunities of the existing single combats, and he based where, the karate which contained in itself elements - to, judo, boxing, to a dzhi - a dzhits and muay - thaw. Unlike numerous remixes (and them, believe, there is a lot of) where represents harmonous dynamic system. Her creator constantly is in creative search, adding all new and new receptions and complexes. Kudo`s
- rather rigid direction in martial arts, and therefore in duels it is necessary to use a protective helmet. This single combat suits both to beginners, and honored owners of black belt in other types of east martial arts. Adherents where consider that a main objective of studying of any martial art is not accumulation of physical force with the purpose to destroy the opponent, and infinite improvement of spirit.