Rus Articles Journal

The deaf - does not mean the derelict of

Social adaptation of the child with hearing pathology

the Hearing disorder is always a serious problem both for the child, and for his parents. It is heavy to reconcile to the fact that the little man is for the rest of life deprived of an opportunity to perceive such rich and it is incalculable the various world of sounds! Painfully to realize that the illness builds a hidden barrier between the kid and surrounding people, isolates it from the world. However it does not mean at all that vital destiny of such child - loneliness and isolation. For full existence of not hearing kid it is possible and it is necessary to fight.

Children (as well as adults) can lose for one reason or another hearing at different age. Sometimes it occurs till the birth. If the hearing disorder comes before the child seized the speech, it does not develop absolutely; if the kid was already able to say when there was a hearing disorder, he begins to lose the speech and can become the deaf-mute. Sometimes defeat covers very most part of an organ of hearing, and then doctors speak about total deafness; if the area of defeat is less, then this condition of hearing is qualified by physicians as relative deafness, and children are called hearing-impaired. Glukhonemota is overcome thanks to the special organization of their life. As a result children remain deafs (or hearing-impaired) according to the diagnosis, but become speaking. The acoustical perception of the speech at them also intensively develops.

Deaf - same, as all

not hearing kids - absolutely ordinary children. They also like to run, play, dance, have fun and to play pranks, experiment with different objects, to build, mold and draw. But it is very frequent them there is nobody to play. Parents of the hearing children do not encourage their communication with deafs, and at times and interfere with such contacts. Why? Because the untrained not hearing kid does not speak. Instead of the articulate speech he publishes exclamations, sometimes uses gestures, does not understand the turned speech. It his behavior differs from peers markedly with normal hearing who if owing to age and are not able to speak, understand addresses. And their inarticulate babble is perceived surrounding as something absolutely natural (“It still small!“ ).

Similar situations injure parents of the deaf child and he begins to feel other than others over time. But a hearing disorder whatever heavy it was is not an absolute obstacle when training the child of the speech . All deaf children therefore the acoustical perception needs to be developed even in those cases have these or those remains of hearing if these remains - are minimum. During creation of certain conditions not hearing children reach a high level of development and the speech and hearing.

Children with the broken hearing have to live together with hearing and have opportunities, equal with them. It is one of the main tasks of training and education of such kids .

As can achieve these objectives?

the Guide to action

First of all, follows as soon as possible (about one year when still the speech is not developed) to reveal presence of pathology of hearing at the child. You should not neglect routine inspections at the ENT SPECIALIST - the doctor (in the first 2 - 4 months, in 1 year and further - each half a year). If parents had suspicions, and it seems to them that the kid does not react to sharp sounds, on the speech turned to it, does not look for a sound source, it is necessary to address the expert immediately. He will conduct initial examination and if necessary will send to the specialized medical center where to the kid more careful diagnostics will be carried out. Otherwise it is possible to miss precious time, and it will be much more difficult to make up for lag. After consultation with the ENT SPECIALIST - the doctor, inspections and establishments of the exact diagnosis should be got immediately for the kid two hearing aids - surely on one on each ear (it is desirable programmable or digital). Councils “from economy“ to cost one it is necessary to reject at once! Doctors have to pick up an individual operating mode of devices. For this purpose to the baby allow to listen to various sound signals with their help and fix responses to them. Besides, at setup of the device these audiogramma 1 are used . Hearing aid is a major condition of full-fledged hearing - speech development of the deaf kid . All deafs or hearing-impaired children have to carry hearing aids constantly. With their help at them the acoustical perception and oral speech will develop.

But there is more to come. As soon as the doctor establishes the diagnosis, it is necessary to start at once special occupations with the child. The earlier this process will begin, the rehabilitation will be more successful. Parents, under the leadership of experts and by means of methodical grants will be able to give classes. In the last, types of occupations and receptions by means of which it is possible to train not hearing child of the speech are very in details described.

How to give classes?

Development of oral speech

is not required to


For games with not hearing child any special objects. The most widespread toys - dolls, cars, animals, cubes and so on are used. But game has to be real, but not turn into formal exercises. During actions with each toy it is necessary to bring for a moment it to lips, placing at the level of a chin (that the kid saw an articulation) and to call a toy the simple word - an onomatopoeia, for example: la - la, bi - bi - bi, av - av, meow. The child perceives these words by means of sight and the remains of hearing as he carries hearing aids. Daily repeating situation with use of these toys, but in different game actions will lead to the fact that the kid will pronounce some word. For the first the second, third will appear... The pronunciation can be inexact, approximate, but it is unimportant - the main thing that the baby will begin to designate names of objects by means of the speech. Later lepetny words need to be replaced full, common.

Adult should organize specially game situations in the course of which the child isolates actions, and parents designate them words: goes, runs, sleeps, cries, eats... When the baby begins to use independently these words (let and at an approximate pronunciation), it is time to use the whole phrases, for example, mother sits, the car goes, the father goes, the dog runs...

the child at the same time learns both to tell

In this activity and to understand the speech in an oral form.

Training in reading

Besides oral speech, is important to teach the kid to reading. Small children can offer plates with the words written by printing letters. At first children perceive words completely, do not teach them to separate letters, they do not read syllables. Reading from the first steps becomes for them intelligent process: behind each word there is a representation, an image. It is necessary to work constantly on that kids understood the speech, to read or repeat told by other person - it does not mean to understand.

Training in the letter

Along with reading should teach the child to the letter. It is possible to write by means of felt-tip pens with printing letters on not ruled album sheets. At the same time the kid freely has on a leaf the hand and can write words in any place and the direction with letters of any size. Eventually character of the letter is ordered, it becomes equal and accurate.

Development of acoustical perception

Special value classes in development of acoustical perception have

. Carrying devices in itself does not give due effect - children it is necessary to learn to listen attentively to world around sounds, to the speech, to isolate in it different elements that the structure of audible words was gradually specified. The developing acoustical perception helps deaf children to understand oral speech of surrounding people better. Classes have to be given in development of acoustical perception daily for 20 - 30 minutes for many years.

we Study full communication

So, children learned to say though their speech is peculiar and often reminds foreign. With devices it is much easier for them to understand surrounding people, already at preschool age they are able to read and write. And nevertheless, kids still do not participate in games with other children. Why it occurs? Most likely, adults are too anxious with an educational aspect of life of the child and do not think of his place in microsociety. And it is necessary to think of it from the moment of the beginning of occupations. It is very important that parents did not hide deafness of the child when people around state surprise concerning quality of his speech. Decrease in hearing, but not some dreadful infectious disease is the reason of it. It is necessary to create specially for space of the benevolent attitude towards the child . Not only relatives, but also familiar, closest neighbors in the house have to know that parents are engaged with the kid, teach it to speak, to listen, understand the speech of others. And if from time to time to show to them progress of the kid in accumulation of words, the letter, reading, drawing, in production of homemade products, dances or development of physical exercises, the positive effect will not be slow to affect. The normal behavior of the child attracts to it not only adults, but also at children, causes sympathies and desire “to be on friendly terms“ - at least, to play. The speech at the same time pales into insignificance, but during game it becomes absolutely clear that the deaf child tells (even if he not perfectly knows the speech). The wall of misunderstanding collapses, communication becomes free and natural.

It is important that the number of friends at not hearing kid increased. For this purpose it is useful for parents, without being content with games in the yard, from time to time to invite the hearing kids to itself home and to organize for all company some interesting activity and games . So the deaf child will become closer and more interesting to other children because he is able to do a lot of things, thinks out interesting games, explains how to play them.

to Parents needs to bring up in the child such qualities as goodwill, readiness to help other people, attentiveness to people around . Its successful adaptation in society in many respects depends on these properties of character. Therefore such qualities at the child it is necessary to bring up . For example, can carry together with the kid an entertainment neighbors in a case of a family holiday, at a meeting - to take an interest at the acquaintance as he feels, to suggest the baby to make with own hands the gift to any of relatives or friends to birthday.

we Cultivate independence

Gradually from rather narrow circle of acquaintances the child passes into much wider space. And the family has to prepare this transition correctly. At first the kid just goes to shop together with parents, and they include it in purchase process. For example, the father pays money, and the son or the daughter receives goods from the seller. Later the child should go behind purchases most. Previously parents have to discuss and speak with it that dictionary which will need to be used, getting this or that thing. That new manifestation of independence was successful, it is better for parents to warn the seller that to it not hearing kid will come in advance. In this case the child will be understood correctly, but will not make the remark from - for wrong pronunciations. As now near our houses many little shops, tents, booths are located, residents of the area and sellers, as a rule, know each other. Therefore it will not be difficult to agree. Gradually the child will master nearby outlets and behavior forms, new to it.

Hi, big world!

The is become more senior by not hearing child, the more opportunities for inclusion in society at it appear. He becomes the subscriber of library, visits the museums, theaters with repertoire, available to understanding, even concerts for children. Parents have to prepare all these actions too in advance. The child should report where he will go that he will see there, to acquaint with new words; he is trained also for the correct behavior in the museums, theaters. Having come back home, it is necessary to have a talk with the kid again, to discuss his and impressions of an exhibition or a performance. Thus, deaf children are acquainted with culture, on the one hand, and integrated into society - with another.

Obviously full communication is promoted also by visit of kindergarten. The deaf kid surely has to take the most active part in concerts for parents, festive morning performances and other similar actions. He can read to poems, dance, play some musical instrument . It is an important step to socialization of children with a hearing disorder too - publicity teaches them to overcome shyness and fear of large audience.

also campaigns are Very useful to

to socialization of deaf children of excursion in which family acquaintances and the child`s companions participate. In these conditions he learns to act in group, in team; learns to subordinate the interests and desires to desires and interests of others. Ideas of world around extend, the speech of the child because he communicates with a large number of the speaking and hearing people of different age is improved.

the Big benefit is brought to not hearing children by participation in work of circles and sections . Such kids have to be engaged in them independently, communicating with the teacher and other children without participation of parents . Adults can be interested in progress of the child, communicating directly with the head of a circle or section.

Realization of the described models of training and inclusion of deaf and hearing-impaired children in society will help them to grow liberated, opened to contacts, independent. Some not hearing children know one, and even several foreign languages, practise music. Many study at usual schools and professional educational institutions together with the hearing peers, are trained in higher education institutions (on legal, economic and other faculties), can successfully work at the most different positions.

Thus, at observance of certain conditions deaf and hearing-impaired children become full-fledged members of society. The main thing - to help them to overcome difficulties and to become masters of their own lives. Good luck!