Linguistics for kids of
Part 1. Phonetics
Many children very much love games with words, bewitches them sposobnostbukva to completely change the word. For a start it is possible to try oral games “in nonsense“. For this purpose the adult thinks out a couple of words, differing in only one letter, for example, the LAMB in advance - the CANDLE, HORNS - SPOONS it.to the Child is offered to
the phrase of type: “On a meadow candles were grazed“. Zadachamalysha - to define what word meant. This game very much vyruchalanas in long lines to the doctor and in other boring situations. After an etogovoznikl idea to try to play so with the written-down words (discussion at the Early Development conference, thanks to all who took part in it was an incitement of kny!) .
the great variety slovesnykhtsepochek, differing only in one letter Exists. We write down their osobymobrazy: we write down invariable part of the word on a dense card, we write down aizmenyaemy letters on the opening pages - windows. Naoborota of the opening pages can draw sootvetstvuyushchiypredmt, it will be the answer - the picture. Here what we had chains: ONIONS, BOUGH, BEECH, BUG, and also IAC, TANK, CANCER, VARNISH; VOLUME, SOM, the LUMP, SCRAP, the HOUSE (the illustration to the last chain made at very horoshemprofessionalny level it is possible to look on Maria Druzhkova`s website. Still chains: PAIN, MOL, SALT, ROLE, ZERO; HUMMOCK, KIDNEY, DAUGHTER, POINT, BARREL; The MOUNTAIN, BARK, the HOLE, is TIME. Menyaetsyasredny letter: BEECH, SIDE, BULL, TANK. (It is so possible to play also with Zaytsev`s cubes).
the Changing letters can be picked up in a special way so that they an otrazhalita or other characteristic of a sound: dullness - sonority (the DAUGHTER - the POINT, the GROTTO - the MOLE, CHAGALL - the JACKAL, the BONE - the GUEST) or hardness - softness (FINGERS - - BORE the TAMBOUR, the NOSE, the HEAT - DRANK, BALD - FOX, - CARRIED WHO). It is possible poigrats homophones which sound equally, and are written differently (the CODE - the CAT, the FOX - the WOODS, ONIONS - the MEADOW, the POND - the ROD). Other option: it is possible to write the word in which one letter, the first iliposledny, is closed by a window: DUCK, COLUMN, CRACK, PRICK, BISON, BRAID, GLOOM, REGIMENT, ROD, WOLF.
Part 2. Morphology
can try to approach serious linguistic things, for example, to structure of the word Now. So, we study functions of suffixes. For an etogolist of paper of a format A - 4 we cut in half lengthways and we divide into three parts. Nakazhdy part on the top line we paste the opening malenkiyestranichka - windows: on the first 3, on the second - 3, on the third - 9. Now natrekh pages of the first part we write three words HOUSE, the KNIFE, the NOSE, on vtoroychast: the first page we leave empty, on two following we write IK,IShchE. On nine pages of the third part we draw the house, a knife and nossootvetstvenno the average, small and big size (the order is unimportant). Task: to make the word of a root and a suffix (the house, a lodge, domishche etc.) and to find the corresponding answer - the picture. Not to call the term “suffix“ of a mozhnopok, and it is possible to tell that it is such special part of the word which forces the word to grow up or decrease.
the Suffix can have also other functions. Let`s look, for example, on tsepochkusl: BUILDER, TEACHER, LISTENER, INSPECTOR. Let`s write down them also that it was visible that the first part of the word can change, and a suffix uvsekh words the general. About whom speak - TEL? Perhaps the child will try to samotvetit on this question?
of the Prefix. Preparatory work same. We write on pervoychasta pages: The FEATHER, FOR, YOU. On pages of the second part we write: To JUMP, DIG. On the third to your taste you illustrate actions: to jump, jump, out, rummage etc. The task is corresponding. To Mozhnoskazat that here a prefix - the tamer of tigers, onazastavlyat them to jump through a hoop, to jump on a curbstone it. >
of Such words - toys it is good to p to make much with different words, togdabudt clear that the number of prefixes and suffixes is limited, they are used with different roots and change sense of the word. On the same principle it is possible to show also the terminations: Y, AYa, OE is CHEERFUL +, we draw, let us assume, the boy, the girl, the sun. It is possible still a sdelatstranichka of YE and to show that such terminations are suitable for all three-childbirth.
One more game about prefixes: “Teremok“. The first part of the word - the PRI prefix. The second - the changing words: FLEW, JUMPED, RAN, went, RUSHED, CREPT, the third - (the distance between vtoroy the third part is more, than between the first and second): the picture a sizobrazheniye of a fly, frog, hare, wolf, snake (I know what in originaley was not, but there is a wish to insert an excess glagolchik!) . Task: rasskazatyo settling of a teremk to choose to whom what action suits. In igrevidno that a prefix here one, and it is possible “to put“ it to raznymkornyam. At the same time we show what about approach is told by the PRI prefix, to Ania PRA.
One more game with suffixes - “Degrees of comparison of adjectives“. The Igrapokhozha on described above the HOUSE - the LODGE - DOMIShchE, only the kid teperznakomitsya not with nouns, and with adjectives. Characters mogutbyt heroes of fairy tales (for example, a bear cub Mishutka SILNY, Petrovna is STRONGER than a medveditsanastasye, and a bear Mikhaylo Ivanovich - the STRONGEST). One of three wise men can be WISE (or CLEVER), another - is WISER, atretiya - the WISEST. Daughters of the merchant from the fairy tale “Scarlet Flower“ - respectively KIND, MORE KINDLY, the KINDEST. It is possible to show also another sposobobrazovaniye of degrees of comparison - analytical. In this case a naneizmenyaemy window we will write the word, say, STRONG or BEAUTIFUL, and namenyayushchikhsya to BOLEE, SAMYY(AYA). The same task - to make the necessary combination of an inayta the corresponding answer - the picture.
Following stage of the morphological analysis: the game “Morfologicheskiykonstruktor“ (the name is intended for adults), to the child to luchshepridumat something more harmonious:-). In advance we prepare cards on which different parts of speech will be written. For example, prefixes: The FEATHER, TO, YOU, missile defense, ON, FOR, At, ON, roots (for a start are offered the COURSE, WATERS, the NOSE), suffixes of K, IT (strictly speaking, it is not a suffix, but a formantinfinitiva), NIK, ChIK, the termination A, And. Different parts of the word it is possible in the napisatrazny flowers or to designate them as at school (I remind, an arch dlyakornya, the turned tick for a suffix, a small square for the termination turned “flatwise“ a letter G for a prefix). Our task: to make the maximum number of words of an imeyushchegosyanabor (NAKHODKA, TRANSITION, the ADAPTER, the WIRE, the TRANSLATOR, the CONCLUSION etc.) . To play this game, adding a word novyechasta, it is possible indefinitely. It is possible to compare a poluchivshiyesyaslov in which there are identical parts: what the general, for example, at SLOVPEREKHOD, TRANSFER and TRANSFER? And at the words DRIVE, GO, CARRY? And it chtopoluchitsya if to replace the termination A with the termination I: NAKHODKA - NAKHODKA?
Of course, not all prefixes and suffixes it is possible “to put“ mechanically a kslova, but in it there is the sense too: it is possible to track from what slovaobrazovan this or that turned-out option: for example, Perekhodnikobrazovano`s word not from the word HODNIK, and from the word TRANSITION.the Idea “perestanovochek“ perfectly works with
also at the level of syntax, an okotor will there be a speech in the following part.
Part 3. Syntax
we Will try to imagine syntactic designs in a look “perestanovochek“, we will try to show to the kid as words connect a vpredlozheniye. It is necessary to begin with a combination of a subject and a predicate as it is an offer kernel, to additional members kotoromuprisoyedinyatsya.
So, our new book budetsostoyat from three pages, each of which is cut on two parts (the section passes perpendicular to the line of a fastening of pages). The odintekhnichesky moment is important: when pages of your book are stuck together, it is necessary to cut them at the same time, then to turn over them separate chastibudt easier. The first part - a subject, the second - a predicate. On a pervoystranichka we write, for example: The HEDGEHOG SLIDES, on the second - the WHALE FLOATS, natrety - the CAT is STOLEN. Now try to perelistnut one part, without overturning another. At you the nonsense will turn out: The WHALE is STOLEN, PLAVAYETI`S HEDGEHOG etc. Therein it is unostentatiously possible to explain that on the first chastinapisano who acts, and on the second - that it does. Without watching a situation nafantastichnost, the offer all the same turns out in all three-cases.
can enter the coordinated definition Now. For this purpose stranichkudely already on three parts and to each hero we give definition, for example, PRICKLY, HUGE, NEIGHBOUR`S. The principle of action - the same. Remarkable examples such can be found on Maria Druzhkova`s website, Maria had such examples: PRICKLY HEDGEHOG, BIG-EARED HARE, HORNED DEER).
we Will try to come to the rule soglasovaniya:sdelay characters grammatical uncoordinated, using different chisla childbirth, for example, the PRICKLY HEDGEHOG, the little BIRDIE, FLUFFY CHICKENS. Whether “the correct combination“ will turn out in this case? Means, to be coordinated opredeleniyedolzhno with defined in number and a sort (a case pokaostavy, it is slightly more difficult).
we Enter circumstance. The circumstance can be any - places, an image of action, time. Our heroes appear In the WOOD, they make V MORE, POKRYShE (adverbial modifier of place), the actions the BALL, is NOISY, is SILENT (adverbial modifiers of manner), at last at NIGHT, in the AFTERNOON, MORNING (adverbial modifier of time). In such “perestanovochka“ naglyadnovidno, than these words and expressions what questions they answer are similar. At one stroke the kid forces a cat to swim a ball to the sea or a hedgehog - quietly to slide on a roof.we will try to show
Now that such addition. For this purpose at first to nuzhnoispolzovat verbs which are combined with a noun in a vinitelnompadezha (i.e. transitional), for example, GRABBED, MET, ate, on a drugoystranichka we write additions: MOUSE, PORRIDGE, WOLF. Then it is possible poprobovatyizmenyat additions and verbs in search of “the correct combination“: what will be if the verb and addition are in different numbers: GRABBED MYSHKUI GRABBED MICE (the combination all the same remains grammatical “correct“, so coordination in number - not that principle, on the verb and addition kotoromusoyedinyatsya).
A if to try to take drugiyeglagola, for example, FLEW, FOUND, JUMPED? In this case, only glagolnashet it will be combined with all nouns in an accusative case, in whatever number they stood. Means, put here in verbs: odniiz them can be combined with a direct object, and others - cannot (mention zdesmozhno that such verbs are called transitional).Can try to show to
syntax of pretexts. Let`s tell, there is a BIRDIE (the MOUSE, the TIGER etc.) also there is a CAGE (the MINK, the NEST). Where is ptichkapo to the relation to a cage? One book - pretexts with a prepositional case - In, ON (cage). Another - pretexts with an instrumental case - FOR, BEFORE, UNDER, OVER. It is possible to make also the third part of a page with the picture - the answer (is more detailed about pictures - answers see above, in the section on phonetics).