Why children study?
of the Little man awake at seven in the morning, force to swallow hastily a breakfast, to wash, put on, and conduct on the dark street in school where he should sit out several hours behind an inconvenient school desk on a rigid chair... The senior, having come off the fat textbook, goes to bed after midnight... And why all this?
Why children go to school?We - that know
why: to get an education, to enter the institute, to become the full-fledged member of society, etc., etc. All this is clear to us and whether it is clear to the child? At what age the conscious concept about that why knowledge is necessary is formed? It is possible to attend classes for various reasons: from - under sticks, by inertia because all study to correspond to an environment or to surpass it to achieve success or to avoid failures, just because it is interesting. All these reasons are called motivations, external and internal. Not all of them are equivalent. The most talented will not show fully the abilities if they do not want or it is not interesting to study if there is no confidence in existence of direct link between study and vital success.
External motivation : it is necessary for parents that their child studied. Here they also force it to it, using the well-known principle of a carrot and stick: punish for the two, treat with candies for the five. A question - as far as it is effective?
Internal motivation : the child declares: “I want!“ also does not go together with all to cinema, and sits down to draw. Or to read the book. Or even to solve problems. It is interesting to child to acquire new, to realize the abilities, to overcome difficulties. As incentive in this case serves the piece of knowledge - interesting and fascinating. For everyone the.
the child can study At elementary school rather successfully, being guided by an assessment of the teacher or opinion of parents. The kid realizes the value of knowledge poorly. Objects which contain a game element, entertainments concern to darlings more often: work, drawing, physical culture. At this age at most of children the aspiration to give pleasure to adult, dear person, to please it with the progress and vice versa unwillingness to listen to his reproaches dominates.“I study
because if I receive the two, I will be abused“. Lena G. 1 class.“I study
for the mother. She is upset when I am not in time. I feel sorry for her“. Masha P. 2nd class.“I study
to be clever. My father very clever, and I have to be same“. Lisa G. 1 class.
Should consider also that the sense of the word “study“ in children`s understanding can be much broader, than just acquisition of knowledge. The child also includes desire to see friends, to play, in concept of school study. All these occupations can serve and serve as sufficient incentive “to endure“ boring lessons. To the contrary, the bad relations with peers can negatively affect also progress.
Question : Whether the external motivation is so bad? Whether so she clashes with internal? Any work has to be rewarded. If not to award diligence, then inevitably there will occur the fatigue and apathy. Besides the pupil can just feel pluses of good study. It can become a habit as good manners.
Psychologist : Undoubtedly, at a certain stage, especially in elementary grades not to do without it. Use this time! For the present you in forces to force the beloved child to study better. For the present your guardianship and control do well to the child.
needs to observe a measure: the knowledge, but not the sweet pie received in an award has to remain the main thing.
Though interest in concrete objects still in many respects depends on the identity of the teacher, gradually at this age respect for adults loses the relevance. To the forefront there is an aspiration to be better or at least it is not worse than other schoolmates. Psychologists call it “prestigious motives“:“I love
when teachers praise me“. Yaroslav G. 5th class.
“If to be - so to be the best! I like to receive the five, to be best of all in a class“. Mischa K. 4th class.
Should not reproach the child with vanity: it is normal for a certain age. Later, with development of the personality, the place of these motives will be taken by others, less dependent from external factors. And the aspiration to a praise will remain on the second plan, doing school life of the pupil brighter, attractive.
Question : Than competition is so bad? So-called “prestigious motives“ - the same competition.
Psychologist : competition in the real world is inevitable. All our life is a run competing in speed. The problem is that not created nature the first failures can unsettle. It is more useful to compete not with others, and by itself.
the Senior classes
the Condition of successful assimilation of the school program (and not only) at this age is the aspiration to find self-confidence and the forces.“To me is pleasant to learn
every day something new! It is interesting to me: how many I can remember everything?“ Lena F., 9th class.
Teenagers begin to realize usefulness of the acquired knowledge as means to receive something else more valuable.“I want to speak
fluently in English. To read in Shakespeare`s original“. Masha B. 7th class.
“The main thing in life are money. The majority of troubles, the majority of quarrels in a family occurs from - for their absence. I want to earn much, then everything at me will be good“. Sasha V. 8th class.
Question : What can be told apropos excessively ideal and excessively mercantile motivations?
Psychologist : You should not show the discontent aloud: you only do much harm. Just children did not learn to lie properly yet.
in many respects it depends on judgments of the father and mother, plus youthful maximalism. Over time both will smooth out, will cease to shock people around. People around different: one work in libraries for a scanty salary and feel satisfaction from communication with fine, others actively earn money.
sharply increase In graduation classes loadings, the classes focused on higher educational institutions are allocated. Former abstract messages: “there are a lot of money“, “there are a lot of knowledge“ - any more are no good. Success is achieved by those who accurately know what he wants who early made an independent concrete professional choice.
“In the 11th class I decided that I will come to MGIMO. Mother with the father considered that to me beyond its powers, was advised to choose other HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION. And I all - arrived! I made it!“ Lydia G., student of the first course of MGIMO.
“I wanted to graduate somewhat quicker from school, to become independent. Now I study on evening, itself I earn“. Tatyana K., student of the first course MGUPT.
“My mother was a teacher. Perhaps, therefore I felt the calling in a class in the seventh. Then I organized patronage of elementary grades, the help lagging behind“. Teplova O. I. honored teacher of the Russian Federation, two-time owner of the Sorosovsky grant.
Question : How to resolve a problem of a freedom of choice of the purpose and the school program? Some objects will weigh, be perceived all the same as unnecessary freight.
Psychologist : Such motive will work in this case: this homework needs to be done to be engaged in what is interesting that they did not spoil the certificate at receipt in the elected HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION. whether
Can develop motivation?
Alas, the modern psychology claims that from the outside it is impossible to create notorious motive. Each person has to make it. Teachers and parents can only promote this process or, on the contrary, interfere that, unfortunately, happens much more often.
a number of theories, sometimes paradoxical, about ways of increase of internal motivation in educational process Exists. Sometimes these ways quite disputable, are sometimes simply inapplicable to a real situation. Therefore we will be limited to several practical advice:
- Try to adjust the school student on positive result. If your son regularly does 15 - 20 mistakes in dictations, and in the last it was found only 10 - praise him for it! It is available small, but success. do not take
- from it the promise to perform the following task on “perfectly“. Such task is impracticable! Punishment for the two (flogging, deprivation of walks) never brought to
- advantage. It, and also phrases of type: “By five o`clock lessons have to be made!“ can be applied only when you precisely know that your son or the daughter played the fool instead of doing homework. If the child stayed over textbooks three hours instead of put two - praise him: it is interesting to it, he tries. you do not hurry to offer
- the help when performing tasks. Do it only when you see that to the child definitely not to cope.
- not to go to far in prizes and awards for progress in study. The received knowledge has to remain the first prize! >
- it is careful to li to treat competition situations. (Prize-winning places only three, and in a class of 25 people!) It is better to accustom the child to the analysis and comparison of own results and achievements.
- do not impose to the child the purpose from the outside. In this case its achievement will be necessary for you, but not it! Write down children in the circles developing sections. Try to reveal their own interests. Even if you all life dreamed to see the daughter the mathematician, and she most of all likes to cross stitch. It is better to reconcile: Sofya Kovalevskaya will not leave her, but perhaps there will be Coco Chanel.
- Try to reveal an element of an intrigue, a riddle in tasks.“ Entertaining mathematics“, G. Oster`s “Book of problems“, various rebuses and puns, stories about travel and great opening will help to carry away the child school objects.
Should not belong excessively seriously to all councils given above. Life much more mnogogranny. You remember: the person in general without motivation does not exist in the nature. It is put at the biological, animal level. Without it we and remained to jump on trees or long ago would already die out behind uselessness. Babies would not learn to creep, go, speak. The main thing not to crush aspiration of the person to self-expression by excessive dictatorship or impetuous overindulgence. Results will be deplorable and will not be limited school days. Motivation, in fact, it the same that meaning of life. whether
Some more questions
- So cannot create motive? Children are psychologically dependent on adults.
Psychologist : It is better to raise a question in a different way: not to develop, but not to suppress motivation! For this purpose it is necessary to set constantly for the kid the small tasks calculated on independent performance. And it is necessary to begin to school, from the cradle. Councils are banal: do not start first lifting the fallen toy. Having given to the kid a task, say, to wash a kerchief, do not redo badly performed work on his eyes. It is also useful to give vital examples of the successful people who achieved everything by own efforts thanks to study.
- of Typical situation :“ I was engaged much and wrote control on the four, and Vitka made “spurs“ and received “five“.
Psychologist : Here to you and competition problem! Explain that, Vitka deceived himself, he received a good mark, but did not receive the main thing - knowledge. Further surely there will be a situation when it is brought by ignorance.
- of the Situation of the disappointed hopes : “I was engaged so much. And all the same received troyak. Why then to work?“
Psychologist : Example of the conflict of internal and external motivation. The five comes to someone easily, and for someone and the three - a victory. If the child actually was engaged, do not abuse at all. Try to find out the failure reason better.
- “My mother - the candidate of science, hardly makes ends meet, and Lelin the father ended a semiletka, but carries the daughter on Mercedes“.
Psychologist : Alas, so happens. Mother should not complain about the life at the child. It it focuses it on failure in advance.Can be told
about process of initial accumulation. To explain that without education big money can be earned, but it or is much more difficult, or they are given by unfair means.
- of the Statement of the school student to parents (7 - y a class (!)) : “I passed for you examination! What from me still it is necessary to you!“ Answer: “I gave all soul to you, and nothing is necessary to you!“
Psychologist : Situation really heavy. Probably, it is just that case when the loving mummy started at first lifting the fallen rattle, then itself made all decisions for the child. Here he also grew up, without knowing what he wants. Somehow to improve situation, it is necessary to put it before real difficulties. Let will fill pair of cones, will understand where it is good where it is bad. Or further to drag it on the hump.