Collection of games and tasks for development of small motility. Part II
Equipment : Ready books, magazines for coloring, preparation, paints, pencils, wax crayons or a pastel, felt-tip pens and other materials. It is also necessary to have brushes of the different sizes, sponges for painting of big spaces etc.
Contents : For this purpose ready coloring books can be used. It is necessary to pay attention of children to that the image was painted over rather carefully, exactly, accurately.
Equipment : Ready books, magazines for coloring, preparation, Montessori`s framework, paint, pencils, wax crayons or a pastel, felt-tip pens and other materials. It is also necessary to have brushes of the different sizes, sponges for painting of big spaces etc.
Shading as one of the easiest kinds of activity, it is entered considerably and for assimilation by children of hygienic rules, necessary for the letter. At the same time it continues to remain a development tool of coordinated actions of visual and motive analyzers and strengthenings of the motive device of the writing hand. Coloring of drawings assumes four types of shading which provide gradualness in development and strengthening of small muscles of a hand, in movement coordination working off.
- coloring by short frequent strokes;
- coloring by small strokes with return;
- centric shading (circular shading from the center of drawing);
- shading by long parallel pieces.
When performing shading needs to follow rules: not to go beyond figure contours, to observe parallelism of lines and distance between them (0,3 - 0,5 cm). It is recommended to shade in the beginning with short and frequent strokes, then to enter centric shading, and only at the last stage shading by long parallel pieces is possible.
In the first attempts of shading the hand quickly gets tired, children strongly press a pencil, there is no coordination of fingers, but work in itself is fascinating and the child comes back to it. On drawings it is possible to track improvement of the muscular device. For shading it is possible to use simple and color pencils, felt-tip pens and colored pens.by
For development of accuracy and confidence of the movement of a hand use games in which children need to draw parallel lines in a certain direction.
- Game “From the House to the House“. The child`s task - exact straight lines to connect among themselves lodges of one color and a form. The child draws a line just a finger in the beginning, choosing the direction, then as a felt-tip pen. Drawing lines, children accompany actions with the words “From a Lodge to a Lodge“.
- Game “Various Labyrinths“. To the child draw various labyrinths. Let “will pass“ on them a pencil. That occupation did not bore, it is the best of all to explain what the labyrinth where it conducts and who on it has to pass is. (“This labyrinth - in the lock of the Snow Queen, it from ice. Gerda has to pass on it, without concerning walls, otherwise she will freeze“.) “a framework and Montessori`s inserts“ it is useful for Obvedeniye`s
- of any inserts from a series for development of a hand, it is not less useful to shade them. Each figure should be shaded under a different tilt angle and with various degree of density of lines. It is good if the shtrikhovaniye turns out different degree of intensity: from pale, hardly noticeable, to dark.
also shtrikhovany a grid. In all cases the child needs samples so it is necessary to shade also to you.
in the course of drawing at children develop not only the general representations, creativity, the emotional attitude towards reality goes deep, but elementary graphic abilities, so necessary for development of manual dexterity, development of the letter are formed. Drawing, children learn to handle correctly graphic material and master various graphic equipment, they develop small muscles of a hand. It is possible to draw black and colored pencils, a felt-tip pen, chalk, water color paints, gouache. Certainly, drawing promotes development of small muscles of a hand, strengthens it. But it is necessary to remember that when training in drawing and the letter are specific position of a hand, a pencil, a notebook (sheet of paper), methods of carrying out lines.
Equipment : Paints, pencils, wax crayons or pastel, felt-tip pens and other materials. Paper for drawing has to be different formats and shades. It is also necessary to have brushes of the different sizes, sponges for painting of big spaces etc.
Contents : For a start it is good to use:
- inking of flat figures. It is possible to lead round all: a glass bottom, the turned saucer, own palm, a flat toy etc. Especially are suitable for this purpose of a mold for preparation of cookies or cakes;
- drawing on reference points;
- dorisovyvany second half of drawing;
- drawing on a sample, without tearing off a hand from paper.
drawing of ornaments on sheets in a cage (graphic exercises) at first a simple pencil, then color Well develops motor dexterity. It is possible to carry out such exercises from 5 - 6 years. Children with interest are engaged in similar drawing. When the hand of the child a little gets stronger, drawings in his execution become tidier and more beautiful.
does not need to force the child to draw ornaments. Try to interest him in this occupation. It is necessary to show at first as it becomes.
Graphic exercises are not the main component of graphic activity of five - six-year-old children and therefore should not prevail in it. Graphic sheets for exercises can be prepared by parents. It is also possible to use various nonconventional technicians.
of Monotipiya : apply paint of different flowers on a sheet of paper. Then on a leaf other leaf is imposed, and prints are given a certain form by means of a brush, a pencil, a felt-tip pen.
of Nabryzg : the brush is lowered in paint, and then spray paint on a sheet of paper by means of fingers or a pencil. Thus, it is possible to create a drawing background.
of Klyaksografiya : paints in any order are applied on a sheet of paper. After drawing to drawing a pencil or a felt-tip pen betray any outline, create an image.
of Tamponirovaniye : putting paints on paper by means of wadded tampons or sponges. Is suitable for creation of a background.
Press by hand : if the child extremely reluctantly draws a brush, suggest it to draw fingers. One can draw, two, and it is possible all fingers at the same time at once: each finger falls to paint of a certain color, and then is in turn put on paper. So salute or a beads etc. turns out. It is the best of all to finish drawing with felt-tip pens or pencils. The hand can be painted with a brush, and then to do prints on paper. >
For small children it is good to p to use special “edible paints“ (are on sale in shops). Such paints can be thought up and most: jam, jam, mustard, ketchup, whipped cream etc. can decorate your drawing or a dish.
the Moulding from plasticine or the salty test
the Used materials : clay, plasticine, special dough for a molding, threads, a plastic knife, boards for plasticine etc.
Contents : It is possible to do single details or at once a little and to unite them in compositions. You can mold fine details, and the kid can collect ready composition.
- we Mould sausages, ringlets, balls; we knife a plasticine sausage plastic on a set of small pieces, and then we stick together pieces again. We do flat cake or a coin of each small piece. (It is possible to press on flat cake the real coin or a flat toy to receive a print.) We paste over with the received flat cakes of a jar, branch, and. etc.
, make salty dough for the child. There is a recipe: flour, salt, water, sunflower oil. Flour and salt undertakes in identical quantity, and waters one third smaller (for example, on a glass of flour a glass of salt, 2/3 glasses of water, oil tablespoon). To mix and knead. If it is molded badly, to add water. Dough can long be stored in the refrigerator in a cellophane package.
That the molded figures became firm, bake them in an oven, the longer, the better. The hardened figures can be painted with paints. Every time when you cook the real dough, let`s a piece sculpture to the child.
- of Vykladyvaniye from plasticine of the set drawing balls, sausages on plywood or a leaf of a cardboard.
- Pasting by plasticine of a glass bottle and giving to it of a form of a vase, teapot etc.
- Moulding of geometrical figures, figures, letters.
the Pliability of sand provokes desire to create from it a miniature of the real world. The picture created by the child from sand is a creative product. The main emphasis is placed on creative self-expression of the child thanks to which on unconsciously - symbolical level there is exit of internal tension and search of ways of development. Playing in a sandbox of concrete life situations allows the child to change the attitude towards them and to find the solutions, correct for itself. In sand pictures there is one more major psychotherapeutic resource - a possibility of creative change of a form, a plot, events, relationship. The child playing in a sandbox with tiny figures embodies a figure of the Wizard who enters interaction with natural and social powers.
As game happens in the context of the fantastic world, the child is given an opportunity of creative change of the situation disturbing him at present or a state. Transforming a situation in a sandbox, the child gets experience of independent permission of difficulties and the internal, and external plan. He transfers the saved-up experience of independent constructive changes to reality.
According to the purposes of our work we are interested in correctional aspect of sand therapy - as a motility development method hands.
Content of work :Find
- a big box, fill it half with the washed-out and dried up river sand. Show to the child a toy which you will hide in this sand, and make it when he turns away. It is gradually possible to increase quantity of the hided toys.
- Suggest the child to simulate a sand projection. For example, according to the available experience of the child, ask it to represent a zoo, pets, the wood etc. Let the child himself otobert necessary materials and will simulate space. Think up
- and simulate a sand projection with various landscapes (mountains, reservoirs, plains and. etc.) on the basis of lexical subjects familiar to the child (for example, wild animals). Use for creation of a projection of a figure of pets. Suggest the child to correct a picture. The child himself has to choose the correct figures of animals and place them in landscapes peculiar to them.
- Statement of the fairy tale familiar to the child. The child independently chooses a requisite and builds scenery. The fairy tale can be lost completely on a plot or the familiar plot is taken as a basis, and the child thinks out and finishes the end of the fairy tale.
- “Who will remember
of Game with small objects?“
Equipment : a box with color sticks of different size, the samples drawn on tables.
Contents : the adult shows to the child a sample 5 - 10 sec. the Child has to consider and remember attentively it in what order sticks are placed. The adult cleans the table, and the child independently spreads drawing which he just saw from sticks. On completion of work the child verifies drawing with a sample.
- “Magic cube“
Equipment : “the magic cube“ - them is on sale great variety with various subject now (geometrical figures, animals, flowers, figures, etc.) . You can make such cubic Take a box in the form of a cube from a dense cardboard. Pick up figures for the chosen subject (for example, geometrical) about one size and make the corresponding openings in a box. Everything can be painted in different colors. At the first stage show to the child that each figure gets only to one opening, and in another - no. Then in common try to spread out figures. And only then provide to the child most to try. And if it does not turn out, try at first.
- “Lay out a pattern in line“
the Equipment : sheets of paper, trays with sticks, samples on tables at the adult.
Contents : You suggest the child to lay out on a sheet of paper sticks a line on the drawn sample which it shows within several seconds. He performs a task.
- “Let`s build the house“
the Equipment : in detail envelopes to three lodges of different size, cut out from paper, a magnetic board.
Contents : the adult builds the house, attaching details to a magnetic board. The child builds the same house, selecting the corresponding details from an envelope.
- “What figure turned out“
the Equipment : sets of monophonic and color sticks.
- to put geometrical figures from 3, 5 and 6 sticks;
- to lay out 3 triangles, 2 rectangles (a different form);
- to lay out a quadrangle from 6 (8) sticks;
- to put 2 figures from 7 sticks, 3 figures from 10 sticks etc.
of the Stick for each figure can be a certain color.“Consider
- , without looking“
the Equipment : long strips of a cardboard with the buttons sewed on them, cubes or sticks in sacks.by
It is designed for children of the advanced preschool or younger school age.
Contents : strips with buttons are turned on a table by the face down. The child takes them in hand (without looking at buttons), hides for a back and will sense, then checks, already looking at a card. The child naoshchup counts the set quantity of cubes or sticks from a sack.
- “Think up a pattern“
to Make a pattern on the table of clay (plasticine) by painting of a surface stitches or overlaying of pattern elements on it of small stones, grain.
Equipment : plates square or a rectangular shape (12*12 cm, 10*15 cm, 0,5 - 0,7 cm thick) from clay or plasticine, the test; variable samples of elements of a pattern on pictures.
- “Felt-tip pens“
Put five felt-tip pens on a table. Let the child will lift them from a table in the different ways. In the first - holding from two parties with tips of thumbs. In the second case - index, then averages, and so up to little fingers.
If the child coped with it, replace felt-tip pens with matches. Such game improves coordination of a muscular tone, develops the accuracy of movements and learns to work both hands.
of Game on the basis of Lego (or any other designer)
Game on the basis of the designer promotes development of small motility, ideas of color and a form and orientations in space.
We can note some advantages of use of the designer.
- In - the first, with hand-made articles from the designer the child can play, feel them, not riholding down to spoil whereas drawings, applications or figures from plasticine cannot be suitable for the organization of game.
- In - the second, when using the designer at the child turn out colourful and attractive hand-made articles regardless of the skills which are available for it. The child already has feeling of success.
- B - the third as the designer it is possible to arrange not only on a table, but also on a floor on a carpet, to the child during occupation does not have need to keep a static sedentary pose that is especially important for somatic the weakened children. , at last, the designer is safe
- I. Remain pure with the child of a hand, and it is possible to clean hand-made articles easily and quickly.
by Different firms offers a wide choice of sets:“ House“, “Airport“, “Zoo“, “Family“ and others. They can be used for development of a lexicon of the kid. For example, when using a set “Airport“ it is possible to acquaint children with types of air transport and the structure of the airport and at the same time to fulfill communicative skills and speech receptions, creating game - dramatization where children play parts, using special dolls from sets.can be
of Game on the basis of the designer both directed, and not directed. In the first case perhaps bigger or smaller intervention of the adult in the course and a condition of game. In certain cases the expert has to even develop the scenario. For example, it can be the scenario of any household conflict or the fairy tale. The child necessary details of the designer also plays a beret. The role of the adult is reduced to statement of certain questions, answers to which could explain what is done by the child.
the Adult tells
“Wild animals“ to the child that accommodation of 1 predator or 1 family of predators requires existence in the territory of a large number of herbivores. Then it acquaints the child with materials which he can use for creation of the hunting territories. The space on a carpet where territories will be modelled, is already organized by means of the river from paper. The adult reminds that on a site of a predator there has to be water. The child has to simulate the hunting territory.
of Game with hands
two Play. The right hands of players are linked, thumbs are raised up. On a signal the thumb of each rival begins “to hunt“ for a thumb of another, trying to press it from above. Game option: both the right, and left hands of rivals are linked. At the same time both the right, and left thumbs “hunt“.
- “A swallow, a swallow, a perepelochka“
the Right palm of the child lays down on the left palm of the adult. Quietly, tenderly and slowly you say “swallow“, at the same time fingers of the right hand running over a thumb of the child from the basis to a tip; then with the same word you stroke other finger of the child. Having touched several fingers of the child, thus, without changing intonation, you say along with stroking: “perepelochka“. The child`s task - to be vigilant and as soon as possible to draw aside a hand as on a final syllable of this word the adult will seize him by a finger-tip and will begin to shake, sentencing: “Caught, caught!“ . After the quail “was caught“ or “flew away“, game continues with other hand of the child.
Having mastered game, the child himself often offers change of roles and with pleasure catches “quail“ - your finger.
two Play. Standing face to face, extend hands forward so that one of palms of everyone appeared between two palms of the partner. Players in turn say by the word of a verse, in a step to each word clapping up to the partner`s palm:
drakonchik Flew, ate donuts.
How many donuts ate drakonchik?
That on whom the turn to answer dropped out, together with cotton calls any number, for example, three. The partner reckons: “One!“ (cotton) - “Two!“ (reciprocal cotton) - “Three!“ . When naming the last number that whose hand at the moment appeared “under blow“, has to take away as soon as possible it that cotton did not achieve the objectives.