Technique of early development of a family of Nikitinykh of
many call Boris Pavlovich and Lena Alekseevna Nikitinykh classics of domestic pedagogics. On the example of own large family in Soviet period they showed how, breaking the settled stereotypes in education to help the child to turn into the independent, harmoniously developed personality.
About Nikitinykh`s family for the first time was exorcized 50 at the end - x years of the 20th century. The settlement of Bolshevo situated near Moscow where there lived teachers, was shocked by how young spouses raise the children. The local public the fact that the nikitinsky children running barefoot on snow and capable to carry out dizzy gymnastic exercises, just boiled health surprised and struck with the intelligence. To three - four years these kids already mastered reading and elements of mathematics, excitedly played the logical games which are thought up by the father, and having hardly begun to study at school, jumped through a class.
Then, in I960 - 1970 - e years of Nikitina laid the foundation of the Russian parental pedagogics which is used to this day.
the Basic principles of education “on - nikitinsk“
according to Nikitinykh traditionally in communication with the child adults allow two extremes. The first is a zaorganizovannost . That is supercareful leaving and continuous occupations, entertainments, games. Time for independent activity the child does not have.
the Second extreme consists in of abandonment the child. It means that communication with the kid is reduced only to his service (to feed, give to drink, sleep to lay). Similar approach leads to a deprivation (psychological starvation), a gospitalizm (to a delay in emotional and mental development) and, as a result, to intellectual backwardness.Nikitinykh`s system, first of all, work, naturalness, proximity to the nature and creativity is the cornerstone of
. Children are owners to themselves, the acts and the schedule. Parents do not force to anything them, only help to understand complex vital and philosophical problems. Adults push, but are not ahead children, enter with them dialogue. The main task of education, according to Nikitinykh, is the maximum development of creative abilities the growing-up person and his preparation for life .the Basic principles of the methods authors define
In - the first , freedom of creativity of children in occupations. Any special trainings, zaryadok, lessons. Children are engaged how many they want, combining sport with all other kinds of activity.
In - the second , easy clothes and a sports situation in the house: apparatuses enter everyday life of children since the earliest childhood, become for them a native habitat, on an equal basis with furniture and other household things.
B - the third , parental unindifference to that as as at kids it turns out, participation of adults in childish sports, competitions and in general - in the life of children.
parents have to have only one purpose: not to interfere with development of the child, and to help it, not to press on children according to certain own plans, and to create conditions for their further development, being guided by health and desire of children.
Lena Alekseevna and Boris Pavlovich did not set as an object to initially teach the kids to everything as soon as possible. They noticed that at children those parties of intelligence for which the corresponding “advancing“ conditions are created develop earlier. Let`s say the child only began to speak, and he among toys already has cubes with letters, the cutting alphabet, plastic letters and figures.
How to cause desire to be engaged in the child?
So, conditions for development have to advance this process. Means, they need to be prepared in advance. That is on walls of a nursery it is necessary to hang up the card of hemispheres, tables of hundreds and thousands, printing and capital letters, measuring devices, books. And the first impressions can involuntarily excite interest of the child in some field of knowledge and even to develop certain abilities. The general work or work as a row is an obligatory interest and in work process, and to its results each other, at the same time, and a reason for conversation, an exchange of opinions. Here it is necessary to pay attention to one very important point: should never be done for the kid what he is capable to cope itself with and not to decide for it what he can independently solve . In any occupations of children adults have to try to encourage creativity, without imposing the opinions, and without hurrying it is obligatory to prevent a mistake or at once to point to it. And in case of failure - not to reproach and not to shame the child. But the success needs to be noted surely and not to stint a praise. The main thing that adults never remained indifferent to that as as children do that at them turns out.
Children have to be ready to perceive knowledge not only intellectually, but also physically. The child`s body - in itself the knowledge tool. Not overloaded with excess clothes, not burdened by superhigh-calorie food, it easily and willingly “moves towards“ requirements of an intellectual order. Apparatuses have to enter nearly since childhood children`s life. The special attention of Nikitina was paid to a hardening. And their experience showed that it is an effective way to protect the child from the majority of catarrhal diseases.
Intellectual games of Nikitinykh
Besides the advancing conditions for development about which there was a speech above Nikitin developed a number of the developing games for children of any age. No certain program of training in the child is imposed. It plunges into the world of game in which it is free to choose a field of activity. Nobody explains to the kid of new rules, he is just involved in game by means of the fairy tale, imitating seniors, participating in collective games. As a rule, at first active participation of adults or elder brothers and sisters is required, but then the child can be engaged already independently. So naturally the baby carries out a number of tasks which gradually become complicated. At the same time the kid cannot prompt. It should give an opportunity to think independently. If the child cannot cope with a task, it is necessary to return to lungs, already mastered tasks, or to leave temporary this game. If it is noticeable that the baby reached a ceiling of the opportunities or lost interest in game, it is better to postpone it for a while.
Such technique allows the child to look for independently the solution of tasks unknown to it, to create new, that is leads to development of its creative abilities.
of Feature :
the Main difference is a multifunctionality of games and a boundless scope for creativity. They can interest and carry away all family members. Games teach children, passing from simple from more difficult tasks, to have pleasure and satisfaction from cerebration, to think, to suffer sometimes, but it is obligatory to achieve the objective.
Each game is a set of problems which the child solves by means of cubes, bricks, squares, the designer`s details - the mechanic. Tasks are offered the kid in various form: in the form of model, flat drawing, drawing in an isometry, the drawing, the written or oral instruction, and thus, acquaint it with different ways of information transfer. Tasks are located from simple to difficult.
of Levels of complexity a little: from available two - three-year-old to excessive for the average adult therefore games can excite interest for many years. And gradual increase of difficulty of tasks allows the child to be improved independently, that is to develop creative abilities.
Using in occupations with the child the nikitinsky developing games, it is necessary to adhere to certain principles.Cannot explain with
- to the child a way and an order of the solution of tasks and it is impossible to prompt neither the word, nor gesture, nor a look. Carrying out the decision practically, the kid learns to take all necessary of surrounding reality independently.
- Cannot demand and try to obtain that the child solved a problem from the first attempt. It, perhaps, yet did not grow, and it is necessary to wait day, week, month or it is even more. the Solution of a task appears as
- at the kid in the form of drawing, a pattern or a construction from cubes, bricks, the designer`s details, that is visible and tangible things. It allows the child most to check the accuracy of performance of a task.
- the Majority of the developing games is not exhausted by the offered tasks, and allows children and parents to make new options and even to think out new games, that is to be engaged in creative activity.
So, the main feature of the developing Nikitinykh`s games - the fact that in them one of the basic principles of training - from simple to difficult - was succeeded to unite with very important condition of creative activity - to do everything independently.
the developing games Developed by Boris Nikitin are described by it in the book which and is called - “Intellectual games“. Here some examples of the most popular of them.to
of the Frame and insertsto
This game is available to the smallest. It presents itself 16 frames with inserts in the form of geometrical figures: circle, square, triangle, ellipse (oval), rectangle and so on. It is better to begin with display of inserts. To take a circle, an oval, a square, an equilateral triangle and, calling, to show them to the kid. At the same time it is better not to hold them in hand, and to spread on a monophonic surface (not on a color cloth or a carpet, and at least on a sheet of paper). Having shown on one figure, it is possible to give them to the kid for independent actions - let examines and plays. Pertinently will be to offer it at the same time a box or a jar in which he will be able to put all this, and then back to pour out. Gradually the peanut will get acquainted with all 16 figures of a set. If to begin with a small amount of figures, it is possible to involve the baby in game, since 10 - 12 months. When the child grows up, it is possible to complicate tasks: to lead round contours of figures a pencil, at first on a framework, then - on inserts (it is more difficult), to do a double contour, to shade the received image, to draw figures into the account (three circles, two small squares), to create subject drawings (a fir-tree from three isosceles triangles).
Put a pattern
This game represents 16 wooden cubes with an edge of 3 cm in size where each side has a certain coloring. Cubes have to be laid in a wooden or cardboard box (its existence is obligatory). Nikitin advises to begin game with them since one and a half years. At the beginning (especially with the smallest) it is necessary just to sit down near with the child and to together consider cubes:“ Watch what beautiful cubes! Here I took 4 cubes: one, two, three, four. Look, it is the blue party, and it is yellow. What beautiful blue path at me turned out! Let`s take hare, you see how he likes to jump on it? And now the path became multi-colored: blue, yellow, blue, yellow“. Perhaps, the kid does not listen any more and looks around. Means, acquaintance to cubes needed to be finished for several minutes earlier. Game should not bother the child. And still: it, as well as any other, it is desirable to store in such place that the kid saw, but itself could not get. When the baby has a desire to play, it can tell or show on a box if is not able to talk yet. These cubes promote “development of spatial imagination, accuracy, attention, graphic abilities, ability to analyze, synthesize and combine“.
Put a square
This game arose from a puzzle in which it was required to put a square from several pieces of various form. It was rather difficult puzzle therefore Nikitin decided to make a number of simpler tasks. Game for children of two years turned out. It has three categories of complexity. About 12 multi-colored squares enter everyone. All 12 squares are located on a fanerka of the size of an album leaf and as if inserted into windows. For children of 2 years and it is necessary to leave younger than 4 simplest squares. Let it will be the whole square, a square from two rectangles, from two triangles and - cut on two parts on the broken line. Now it is possible to begin game with the child. Details need or to be spread out on small groups (in everyone - part of one color), or to show how from two halves the whole square turns out. Further the child is given an opportunity to work most. Gradually the kid will master this level and will pass on more difficult. According to Nikitin, this game promotes development of color sensation, assimilation of a ratio whole and parts, to formation of logical thinking and ability to break a complex challenge into slightly simple.
the Age to start this game is specified by
of Fraction different, from Z to 5 years. It represents a set from three a fanerok of the size of an album leaf. On each of them about 4 circles are located. All of them have the identical size, but different colors. The first circle whole, the second is cut on two equal parts, the third on three and so on, up to 12 “segments“. At first for game leave only the first fanerka with four circles. With their help it is possible to repeat colors, to count the put pieces, to compare them among themselves. With their help it is possible to repeat colors to count the put pieces, to compare them among themselves. Thus the child gets acquainted with mathematical terminology. It is possible to try to make a multi-colored circle. It is very interesting to build a short flight of stairs: below - all, the half, then a third is farther. With its help it is possible to understand visually why one second is more, than one third.
It is universal cubes which enter the kid into the world of three-dimensional space. Development of spatial thinking will allow the child to seize in the future drawing, stereometry, descriptive geometry. Game teaches clearness, attentiveness, accuracy, accuracy.
“Unikub“ is represented by 27 small wooden cubes. Sides of each cube are painted thus (only three colors) that this combination of sides was rare if not unique. For this reason it is so difficult to perform tasks according to the offered schemes. Nikitin offers for “unicube“ of 60 tasks. The author carried out the first of them with children of 1,5 - 3, and the most difficult are available to not all adults.