Collection of games and tasks for development of small motility. Part I
your kid grows also you, seeking to be good parents, try to give him the best: prestigious kindergarten, expensive toys, schools of early development, high quality nurses. But whether it is always good for the child? What do you want to receive in exchange?
A we usually want one: that the child of quick starts to speak, developed quicker, easily studied at school, well adapted in any society and could take in it the worthy place. Often move us our unrealized desires and dreams which we want to embody in the children. But really only someone another, only the high quality expert can give to our child more, than ourselves? I do not urge you to pass all program of school at home. But really we not in forces to prepare children for school?I consider
Ya that the child needs kindergarten only in several cases:
- if with it have nobody to sit;
- if the child has any problems demanding intervention of the expert and parents have no sufficient means for individual occupations with the expert (the logopedist, correctional teachers);
- if at an inner circle of the child less than three children of his age are present;
- if parents are not able to carry out education of the child.
to Use kindergarten as the unique and necessary development tool of your child, more than incorrectly. Any tutor, the tutor, the logopedist or other expert not in forces to develop it is more your child, than you are. It is only necessary to believe in the forces, to read a little pedagogical literature, and forward!
At preschool age should pay the closest attention to development of small manual motility. At first the thin movements of fingers of hands develop, then the articulation of syllables appears. Development and improvement of the speech costs in direct dependence on degree of formation of thin movements of fingers of hands. So, on the basis of the made experiments and inspection of a large number of children the following regularity was revealed: if development of movements of fingers corresponds to age, then and speech development is in norm limits. If development of movements of fingers lags behind, then also speech development is late.
Training of manual dexterity promotes also development of such necessary abilities and qualities as preparation of a hand for the letter (at preschool age preparation for the letter is important, but not training in it since early training often leads to formation of the wrong equipment of the letter), acquaintance with elementary geometrical forms, development of spatial thinking, concept of relativity (it is more - less, is shorter - more long etc.) a manual praksis, art perception, an eye estimation, training in communicative skills, attentiveness, assiduity etc.
I Bring to your attention the collection of simple exercises which can be included in games and in a daily routine of your kid and which will help you to avoid problems with the speech at the child, and subsequently and with his training at school.needs to Begin with
work on development of small motility with the earliest age. Already at infantile age it is possible to carry out massage of fingers, influencing thereby the active points connected with a cerebral cortex. Aged to three - four years it is necessary to carry out the simple exercises accompanied with the poetic text (for example, “Forty“), not to forget about development of elementary skills of self-service: fastening and unfastening of buttons, setting of laces etc.
the Main thing - the level of complexity of tasks has to correspond to age. At the choice of games and exercises it is necessary to consider opportunities and interests of children. Too simple, as well as too difficult games and exercises do not cause in children of interest. In process of digestion of program material game can be complicated, having increased quantity of objects for its carrying out, having changed (having accelerated), having replaced evident material of game on verbal etc.
If the child does not show interest in occupation, it is better to postpone it or to replace with another. Do not interrupt studies for long term. Do not overload the child, do not seek to give him everything at once! Does not mean well much! Do not do what with a great effort! Occupations have to bring joy. Do not try to receive results at once. Even if something did not turn out, not the result, but participation and the gained experience is important (even experience of failures).
Think out plots in advance, making use of already available experience of the child (fairy tales, verses, campaigns in a zoo, theaters etc.) . Spare no expense for qualitative materials and the equipment. Create exhibitions of works of the kid. Think over well a day regimen of the child.
of the Task on development of small motility can be included in such household chores as
- rewind of threads;
- setting and unleashing of small knots;
- care of the cut-off and fresh flowers;
- metal cleaning;
- water procedures, water transfusion. It is possible to suggest to wash the dishes, having made available to the child plastic objects, or to wash clothes (explain and show previously all processes: wetting, soaping, mastication, rinsing, push-up);
- collecting of cutting pictures;
- analysis of grain and so on.
Everything depends on you and your imagination. At you everything will turn out!
Work with balls
Equipment : Spheres of various sizes, box.
Contents : Before the child on a table several balls are put. At some distance from them the box is put. The adult shows and explains how it is necessary to roll a ball that it hit against a box. At first the adult helps the child with performance of this task, then gradually limits the help and tries to obtain that the child performed a task independently.
Work with cubes
Equipment : Cubes.
Contents : Before the child several cubes of the identical size are exposed. The child has to put independently after an explanation and display cubes one on another that the turret, then the train, a stool, a lodge turned out.
- “Path“ - a vykladyvaniye in a row several cubes.
- “Small fence“ - a vykladyvaniye on an edge of several cubes.
- “Small bench“ - is under construction of two cubes and a cross level from above. by
- “Little table“ - the cross level is imposed on one cube.
- of “Collar“ - cubes are put perpendicularly to a level. Using construction material, it is possible to suggest to construct also a bed, a sofa etc.
Work with nested dolls, pyramids
the Equipment : wooden or plastic nested dolls, pyramids, boxes of the different sizes.
Contents : On a table nested dolls, pyramids, boxes are spread out. The adult together with the child attentively considers these objects. Then show to the child how the toy opens as it is possible to sort it, to collect and close. After an explanation and display the adult offers the child independently:to collect by
- a pyramid from 5 rings; to collect by
- 4 - 5 cubes in one big cube; to collect by
- one nested doll from 4 - 5.
Work with a basket and balls
Contents : On a table there is a basket, and on both sides from it put several balls. The adult takes one ball which is on the right side from the child, and throws it into a basket, and then suggests the child to make also. Balls throw alternately right and left hand.
Work with a lacing
Equipment : Cords of various textures, threads, special cards.
Contents : In a card in a certain sequence do openings and ask the child:to stretch to
- a woolen thread consistently through all openings; to stretch to
- a woolen thread, passing one hole;
- to execute a usual lacing, as in a boot.
to Performance of these tasks is preceded by display and an explanation. Further the child can suggest to execute various patterns, observing at the same time the principle of continuous complication of a task. It is more convenient to lacing to train, using two leaves of a dense cardboard with two rows of holes; the child is given a botinochny lace with metal tips and show how to lace up. The cardboard has to be strengthened so that it was convenient to manipulate a lace.Pierce
a pricker or a nail of a hole in a thick cardboard. These holes have to settle down in any order and represent a geometrical figure, drawing or a pattern. Let the child will independently embroider this pattern by means of a big “Gipsy“ needle and a thick bright thread.
Work with a spray
Equipment : Spray, cotton wool.
Contents : It is easy to press three fingers a spray pear, to direct at the same time the received current of air to cotton wool so that it smoothly moved on a table. It is possible to organize game in soccer. For this purpose put gate on both sides, take cotton wool and two sprays and drive cotton wool into the rival`s gate.
Work with a pencil
- Smoothly to rotate a pencil big and index fingers of the left and right hand.
- Search of a pencil all fingers of the left and right hand.
- Rotation of a pencil palms of both hands.
- a pencil Latching between two fingers of both hands (index and average, average and anonymous etc.).
Work with an elastic band
Contents : Between index and average fingers to pull a thin office elastic band. To touch this elastic band (as guitar strings) index and average fingers of other hand. To remove an elastic band alternately fingers of the right and left hand (index, average etc.) .
Work with keys
Equipment : a desktop call (or a subject it replacing - a musical toy, the keyboard).
Contents : Before the child the desktop call is put. The adult shows to the child that the button of a call can be pressed any finger. The adult asks the child to press a call serially all fingers of a hand. Work can be carried out with various keyboard toys. It is possible to press the buttons all fingers in turn, it is possible to touch keys (one key one finger). For children of advanced age it is possible to number keys or to place on them letters of the alphabet and to combine development of small motility with training in the diploma and account.
Work with a mosaic
Equipment : mosaic of different types, sample.
- to Insert a plate into any opening of a mosaic.
- to Lay out several columns from plates of one color. The sample which does not clean up is given.
- to Lay out simple drawing from mosaic plates, having before eyes a sample (one-color).
- to Make the drawing, based on last experience.
Work with a beads
Perfectly develops a hand various threading. It is possible to string everything that is strung: buttons, beads, horns and macaroni, drying, etc. It is possible to make a beads of cardboard circles, small squares, hearts, leaves of trees, including dry, mountain ash berries.
the Used materials : a beads of various texture, a scaffold, threads, buttons, macaroni, drying, laces and other materials (depends on the imagination).
Contents : The adult displays on a table of a bead of the different size, but one color (or one size, but different flowers, or the different sizes and different flowers). It is offered to make independently a beads in which big and small beads, or red and blue, or round and square, etc. alternate. When performing this task it is important that the child not only correctly passed a thread throughout openings of beads, but also observed a certain sequence of threading of beads.
Can suggest the child most to think up material for threading and a pattern.
Work with paper and scissors
Production of hand-made articles from paper is also one of development tools of small muscles of hands. This work carries away preschool children, promotes development of imagination, constructive thinking. Work with paper comes to an end with a certain result, but that to reach it, it is necessary to seize necessary skills, to show will, patience. It is important that children tested pleasure from independently performed work, felt belief in the forces and opportunities. It has to be promoted also by the tasks which are picked up according to age, and encouragement of adults.
can make toys for games with water and wind Of paper and a cardboard, Christmas-tree decorations, attributes for syuzhetno - role-playing games, games - dramatizations, a toy - entertainments, gifts and souvenirs.
Equipment : Paper of various flowers, cardboard, glue, brush, scissors, magazines, pictures, newspapers, foil.by
- Make a beads. Children cut rectangular sheets of paper on triangles, each of them is twisted in the form of a bead, its end is fixed by means of glue. Ready beads are strung on a thread. All work on production of a beads demands sensorno - motive coordination, accuracy, persistence, i.e. the qualities necessary at training in the letter.
- Weaving. Weaving exerts impact on education of accuracy, patience, persistence, to aspiration to overcome difficulties, to finish the begun business, gradually controlling the actions, i.e. all those qualities necessary for the child for training at school.
Material for weaving birch bark, strings of a bast, willow rods, straw, an interline interval can be li>, and also paper, a thin cardboard, fabric, a band, a tape, etc. the Child can suggest to put in half a sheet of paper, to make scissors a number of equal cuts, without going beyond a contour, then to cut thin strips of other color and definitely, observing a pattern, to interweave them between cuts of the main part of a rug.
Having mastered the principle of weaving from paper, children independently begin to think out patterns of rugs, a combination of flowers, use this way of weaving in other hand-made articles.
- of Origami. Origami - ancient art of any creation of figures from paper. Now gains the increasing popularity among teachers and psychologists. And it is not casual. The developing potential of origami is very high.
, goes from simple to difficult. For successful training of production of toys of origami with children in a game form it is necessary to learn designations of preparations (basic forms) and symbols (the set of books on equipment of origami is on sale now). Further it will facilitate production and will reduce time for performance of a toy. For storing and fixing of basic forms with children it is possible to use the following games and exercises: “Turn a small square into other form“, “Guess what the small square turned into?“, “Where whose shadow?“ “Call the correct form“, “Define a basic form“, etc. >
On occupations of origami it is effective to p to use fairy tales - hints, they develop interest, facilitate production and storing when performing toys, mechanical tasks (to draw a line of a bend, to put in half, to put a corner to the center) are replaced comprehended, from the point of view of syuzhetno - a game plan, with action. As the equipment use sheets of paper of different flowers and ready books on equipment of origami.
- of Application.
needs to carry out the following exercises constantly: symmetric cutting, cutting by scissors of figures from cards. Children can make compositions of the cut-out figures - applications. If the child is still small, and you are afraid to give him scissors, let tears picture hands from a zhurnla or newspapers - as will turn out; and you will paste the pulled-out pieces on a pure leaf, giving them any form. The intelligent collage can turn out.
Can learn to be cut out scissors, the main thing that they were safe, with the rounded-off ends. For a start it is more convenient to cut out geometrical forms and figures from color magazines, and the gluing pencil, to fix them on a leaf.
Game on cutting patterns from the put leaflets of paper has remarkable property: as if clumsily the child cut out, the pattern which is bearing a faint resemblance to a snowflake or an asterisk all the same will turn out.
plays a Special role in preparation of a hand for the letter needlework: embroidery, sewing, knitting.
Equipment : Rags, fabrics of different textures, threads, needles big (Gipsy), buttons, thimble.
Contents : The first seam which is mastered by children is a seam “a needle forward“. Try that stitches were identical, formed the flat planimetric line. Having mastered this seam, children pass to seams “for a needle“ and “line“. In a seam “line“ stitches meet densely one to another. The needle is stuck where it was taken out in the previous stitch. On the face one continuous line, and on back - the double line turns out.
Having mastered seams, children can master sewing. Coordination and accuracy of movements develops at the child in the course of sewing of buttons. Then children master a seam “too much“. This seam they can sheathe at first a cardboard piece (card). In the beginning the adult can pin a number of openings on a contour that children mastered a way of action with a needle, then the seam is carried out independently.
After this task become complicated. The adult can suggest to sew the preparations which are cut out on patterns, and then to think up, cut out and sew a dress for a doll or a New Year`s suit.All types of seams children at first make
in air, i.e. imitate the corresponding action of a hand, and then act also with a needle with a thread.
to Children first difficult happens to learn to tie a small knot on a thread. Train them in it by means of the bringing movements: rolling a beads from paper, start of small toys of tops by means of fingers. Start of a top demands characteristic skatyvayushchy movements by fingers, close to creation of a small knot on a thread.