Rus Articles Journal

We get ready for childbirth. The review of techniques

All civilized world came to a conclusion for a long time that the woman (or spouses) needs to be trained specially for appearance of the child on light. It positively influences not only medical indicators (the quantity of patrimonial injuries decreases, pain at the time of delivery etc. decreases), but also psychological climate in a family (level of depressive postnatal states decreases, quicker adaptation to appearance of the new family member takes place etc.) . Where moleno to have such training to future parents? First of all, at so-called schools (on courses) for pregnant women.

But today, at their considerable variety, in offers of this sort of services it is very difficult to em to orient with

: at all not what you expect can be behind the sonorous names famous for names and slogans.

About “school programs“

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the Basis of primary classification of schools specifics of programs of their occupations can become em>. These programs are formed proceeding from those priorities which organizers of school have: it can be professional doctors - obstetricians - gynecologists and pediatricians, - and also psychologists, teachers or just skilled parents who on the basis of the experience tried to create own program of preparation for childbirth.

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Generally except for some extraordinary decisions, it is possible to allocate several directions in activity of such schools.

the Theoretical educational program represents a course of lectures which purpose - to tell future parents in details about features of process of pregnancy and childbirth - both in physiological, and in the psychological plan. As a rule, it is lectures about the changes happening in a female organism during pregnancy about pre-natal development of the child, about the most important stages of course of childbirth and skills of the treatment of the baby with use as a bright example of medical schemes and models. At the same time the lecture form does not mean at all that one tells, and all others write down and listen, - in the course of occupation questions of listeners and answers of teachers, and also working off of practical skills, for example, of feeding or swaddlings of the child are provided.

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Krom of lectures, on such courses can offer viewing and discussion of video movies about childbirth or process of breastfeeding - thus, future parents learn about various scenarios of succession of events at the time of delivery from a large number of concrete examples.

the Ultimate goal of such occupations - gradually to create at the pregnant woman (couple) the correct idea of pregnancy and childbirth which is not distorted by household stereotypes and fears.

Usually at such courses can buy

necessary literature, cartridges.

the Similar program exists also within the state health care. It is meant that such information is stated on classes in so-called psychopreventive preparation in female consultations and the medical centers. However for various reasons such program is not always realized. The relation of official health care to other programs is, as a rule, ambiguous, and to the programs of spiritual sense and occupations directed to preparation for house and (or) water childbirth, - is sharply negative. Such position is based on the available statistical data on a large number of complications during water and house childbirth.

the Program of physical training to childbirth is a number of a practical classes which are given in the gym or the pool. Traditionally they include trainings, relaxation techniques, respiratory gymnastics, the program of natural improvement and a hardening. All this helps the woman to feel, at the time of delivery, further liberated and completely responsible for the processes happening in her organism; for example, ability in time to relax will allow to reduce pain during labor pains is and there is a purpose of occupations within this program.

In the pool there take place occupations by water aerobics which promotes strengthening of the muscles involved at the time of delivery.

the Psychological program is a number of trainings, group or individual occupations by whom by means of certain psychotherapeutic methods try to reduce uneasiness, fears and neurotic manifestations at pregnant women, to focus them on proper response in response to stressful irritants. Relationship between spouses during pregnancy, transition to new type of the relations, feelings of future father, motherhood and paternity also becomes questions for judgment and discussion.

the Educational program - it provides education of feeling of motherhood through establishment and formation of a spiritual bond between parents and not born child in a various form. Quite often occupations the idea of prenatal education - is the cornerstone that is of education of the child and communication with it till its birth, adjustment with it a two-way communication. Sometimes, depending on the chosen technique and the direction, individual and group work of the spiritual mentor is carried out, visit of concerts of a sacred music, church is provided.

the Program of development of skills of creative self-expression - most often this drawing and music. By means of the image of the thoughts, feelings, emotions on paper or listenings of music it is possible to resolve for himself some internal contradictions or to change the disturbing experiences in a positive side. Development and expression of creative ideas which during pregnancy visit future mother positively influence her health and mood.

All these main directions of training of the pregnant woman are in a varying degree presented to

at each school for future parents, however proportions can differ very significantly. And here the major role is played not so much by a form and the direction of occupations how many techniques of preparation for childbirth which are embodied in the content of occupations.

What techniques of preparation for childbirth

First of all exist, divide preparation for traditional childbirth and alternative techniques. What is behind these concepts?

Traditional childbirth is the childbirth happening in maternity hospital in a position lying on a back, under control of the obstetrician - the gynecologist, with use if necessary for the woman in labor of medicines and surgery, for example an epiziotomiya 1 , stimulations, Cesarean section etc. The child`s birth in this case is operated, analyzed and every minute controlled process. Therefore the explanation of physiological and psychological changes in the woman`s organism is the cornerstone of theoretical training of the pregnant woman professional (i.e. medical) during pregnancy and childbirth, the story about healthy nutrition, necessary physical activity, non-drug methods of correction of deviations from the normal course of pregnancy, feature of course of the postnatal period.

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On a practical training which is directed by doctors carries out training of the woman in those receptions which will help it easier to transfer fights, it is correct to make an effort and relax during attempts, to understand actions of the doctors directed to simplification of process of childbirth. In the psychological plan the emphasis is placed on cooperation of the woman with doctors, acquaintance to maternity hospital, elimination of fear of childbirth, change of the general spirit and understanding of every moment of childbirth. Physical training pays attention to development of the necessary muscles in labor, development of poses, optimum during fights.

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Because the idea of partner childbirth is more and more actively realized in maternity hospitals of Russia, to training and training of future fathers for useful participation in process of childbirth pays much attention: they should not disturb doctors, and, on the contrary, whenever possible help them: to calm the wife, to make by her massage, to direct breath during fights.

Alternative childbirth is the childbirth happening in conditions, other than traditional childbirth. Them there are several versions - depending on degree of radicalism of denial of traditional childbirth. Respectively, there are also several techniques of training of future parents.

Vertical childbirth - this way of childbirth uses

in medical obstetrical institutions. During such childbirth the woman is not in horizontal, and in vertical position. At the heart of this way of childbirth, besides various national traditions, the belief that gravity helps a fruit to pass in vertical position down to patrimonial ways lies and process of childbirth proceeds much quicker and more without serious consequences, and children are born healthier, there are less patrimonial injuries.

Therefore, except theoretical preparation, the attention is paid also to the choice of the most convenient vertical pose in labor: being kneeling; standing, holding the hanging-down rope, etc. Active participation in families of future father who has previously the corresponding training is provided. There are maternity hospitals specializing in reception of vertical childbirth.

Water childbirth is the childbirth happening in water: in a bathroom, the pool, the sea or in other natural reservoir where the woman in labor together with the family, and also with other supporters and followers of water childbirth quite often far from medicine goes. The idea is the cornerstone of water childbirth that the water environment facilitates pain at the time of delivery.

can carry the method offered by I. B. Markovsky To the most nonconventional techniques of this kind. At the heart of Charkovsky`s concept - system of water development of the child: prenatal (i.e. prenatal) aquatic preparation; childbirth in water; swimming and diving of newborn and chest babies; a hardening and treatment by cold water with use when training in swimming; and treatment of children by means of the technical devices and exercise machines developed by the founder of a technique. The main thing in this system - increase in the water environment of physical activity of pregnant women and the newborns who overcame fear of water, and also conviction of future parents in correctness of refusal of traditional medicine. Though the method arose still in 60 - e years, it still carries a sensational nature raid, and the professional medicine not without justification is skeptical about it.

House childbirth is a childbirth, the occurring houses (in a bathroom or other other place) with active participation of relatives of the woman and so-called spiritual midwife having not so much medical knowledge, how many special world outlook installations.

Delightful childbirth, childbirth without violence is also options of childbirth out of medical obstetrical institution during which under the influence of a spiritual enlightenment the giving birth woman tests the state close to ecstasy or religious exaltation and does not feel pain. According to supporters of this method, it is possible to achieve similar effect only by preliminary spiritual work under the leadership of the skilled mentor. Often such person has also neither medical education, nor special knowledge.

As at the heart of various options of house and water childbirth such phenomenon as spiritual obstetrics lies, it is important to understand what its essence consists in.

“Spiritual“ preparation

Spiritual obstetrics is based on world outlook installation which determines refusal of medical childbirth by many basic reasons.

In brief it is as follows: sacrament of the birth is an entrance of new soul to this plan of life; each birth is spiritual experience which belongs to people and should not be usurped by pragmatical medical system. From here - a conclusion: for self-determination of the woman important that at the birth of the child there were spiritual midwifes, but not doctors among whom there are many men. Spiritual midwifes are not professionals, but just skilled women because, according to supporters of this theory, only wisdom and empathy which the woman intuitively feels at the child`s birth can make it a source of health and understanding for other woman. As a result at the women who trusted in spiritual midwifes and refused medical care cases of the heavy obstetric complications leading to serious consequences are frequent.

As for work of spiritual midwifes in respect of direct training of the woman for childbirth, often they carry out only individual training of future parents for childbirth mainly in the spiritual plan, including it more important, than physical and theoretical training. From here - a significant amount of the childbirth which ended is unsuccessful - both for mother, and for the child.

the Religious direction
is close to

to spiritual obstetrics. In this case both east spirituality, and restoration of traditions of Russian Orthodox Church concerning a child-bearing can form a basis. The belief in predetermination unites representatives of these directions.

religious traditions have many features, for example abundance of water at the time of delivery: the person is born from waters, in water there is his first ablution, a baptism therefore the birth in water provides softness of childbirth. But the main thing - love and faith in God, a prayer to Blessed Virgin Mary - the defender of all giving birth mothers, not born child is a personality and belongs to God, he has the soul capable to experience all experiences human (pleasure, a grief, fear, etc.) . Childbirth is perceived as the Miracle of the birth of Christ Redeemer repeating through each mother. From this point of view, in labor there is a merge of soul of mother and soul of the child and they are under an Intercession of the Theotokos therefore it is difficult to imagine possibility of any medical problems. Unfortunately, it is not confirmed by real practice which demonstrates that, besides spiritually - world outlook training of the woman in labor, has to be also at all serious professional medical base which in case of complications will save lives of mother and child.

the Program of preparation for childbirth within the religious direction includes elements of theoretical conversation how childbirth proceeds, but the main emphasis is placed on individual and group work of the spiritual mentor. Classes are attended by families. Besides the obligatory program concerts of a sacred music, visit of church will be organized.

Prenatal education is the technique based on idea of communication between the emotional content of expectation of the child and his subsequent development and training: it is considered that positive maternal emotions well influence development not only sensorik, but also pre-natal consciousness of a fruit. Emotional and intellectual needs of not born child during this period are much more primitive, than at the newborn, but they are. It is necessary for it that thought of it and spoke, and the silence or chaos in which there is not born child scar his mentality.

are devoted by

of Class in these techniques to creation of positively painted prenatal environment which is formed by the so-called prenatal mentor (it conducts occupation) for the account, in - the first, mother`s identification with the child, and in - the second, thanks to the leader who creates and maintains emotions of a positive range - from interest and curiosity to ecstatic delight. Prenatal mentors carefully watch that in the course of occupations or medical influence future mothers had no negative emotions (if well mothers, then it is good also to the child).

should allocating with

Within prenatal education as an example to a technique of musical stimulation of development of a fruit and the newborn child, and also removal of vital stresses at the pregnant woman by means of music.

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based it on the theory that the maternal voice is to Kamarton on which the device of attitude of the child is adjusted. The intonations of a maternal voice will be richer, the this attitude will be richer. It means that future mother has to sing when the child still is in a pre-natal state as the fruit perceives all vibrations of a maternal organism. In this method three factors of impact of music on a human body are used: the psychologist - esthetic (associations, emotions, a figurative row); physiological (functional by means of which it is possible to train separate functions of an organism); vibration (vibrations as the physical phenomenon, make a certain impact on fruit cages, intensifying various biochemical processes in them).

This method assumes

not only playing music, but also respiratory gymnastics, and physical exercises, and also communication of the pregnant woman with the child by means of the special device - two funnels connected by a tube, one of which is put to a maternal stomach, another - is brought to mother`s mouth.

the Variety of the domestic techniques used today is supplemented with also western ideas in this area which in Russia tend to distribution - they are used by domestic schools of preparation for childbirth.

Foreign techniques of preparation for childbirth

the Method to Lamaza (a technique of the prepared child-bearing). One of the most widespread in the world, it was developed by doctor Ferdinand Lamaze in 1951. In its basis - interrelation of ideas of future events, their modeling in consciousness and events which should be worried in reality. Therefore the experience gained in the course of this modeling can make real impact on feelings and experiences at manifestation of the expected events in the future. In respect of preparation for childbirth, the experience of control over our physiological reactions gained at trainings can help to keep a tight rein them in a real life situation: having learned everything about process of a child-bearing and having learned it is correct to relax and strain at the time of delivery, we can make a lot of things for simplification of own state when time to give birth really comes, the main sense of methodology to Lamaza also consists In it.

the Technique provides studying of special popular literature, video grants, with the subsequent detailed analysis of information during seminars, and, certainly, a significant amount of hours for a practical work.

Classes are given by specially trained teachers from among not health workers, and also doctors, midwifes and nurses. Classes are attended by both future parents.

Bradley`s Method . He demands understanding of process of childbirth as natural physiological act and in this regard provides mastering skills “managements and cooperation“ in relation to own body. The relaxation and meditative technology, and also a special technique of breath is for this purpose used. Women learn to imitate situation and breath (slow and deep) during a dream and to apply relaxation equipment which can facilitate an indisposition of the first period of childbirth. She does not recommend the breath models applied at school to Lamaza, and offers so-called belly, deep breath. The giving birth women are recommended to concentrate attention on the body to a large extent and to cooperate with it instead of distracting attention from own body and to concentrate attention on some point of an environment (that is recommended in a method to Lamaza) to distract the attention from the felt discomfort.

At the schools constructed by Bradley`s method it is considered p that is necessary full 9 months for full physical and emotional training to childbirth. Visit both of them the spouse as Bradley`s method assumes active participation of the husband in childbirth.

Method Gamper . This psychophysical philosophy arose in 40 - 50 - e of the 20th century in the USA. It connects relaxation equipment with prenatal psychological formation of the woman in labor for the purpose of a cycle change: fear - tension - pain. It was the first philosophy which included future fathers in process of birth of the kid and allowed them to be present at patrimonial halls.

Training begins

on 4 - m month of pregnancy and is carried out by the instructors having the certificate on the termination of the special course allowing them to provide training Gamper`s by method (called so by the name of midwifes of Margaret Gamper who inspired this idea in doctor Dick - to Read).

of Gipno - childbirth . The British psychologists offer a new technique of preparation for childbirth which provides fast and absolutely painless birth of the child. The new equipment is called “gipno - childbirth“ it assumes auto-suggestion and self-hypnosis.

the Essence of this equipment consists approximately in the following. Throughout all pregnancy or during the last trimester the woman learns to breathe not just correctly, and masters special technology of breath, more similar to yogovsky. The pregnant woman constantly practices visualization of the child and process of childbirth, on the one hand, preparing herself for this moment, and - establishing psychological connection with the kid with another. Gipno - childbirth also assumes self-hypnosis - a condition of an easy trance into which the woman in labor enters herself. If everything turns out correctly, then childbirth does not cause any painful feelings. Naturally, all these technicians are supported with the correct breath which helps to hold a condition of a trance, and also weakens or strains certain muscles.

course Duration

Duration of a course of training to childbirth different also makes

from 1 single occupation before the regular weekly jobs visited throughout all pregnancy. Duration of one occupation - from 1 to 4 hours.

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Depending on health, it is possible to choose the option which is most suitable for itself. Though to be attached for all 9 months to courses and only very organized people can constantly feel this dependence.

That how and when to choose?

  • visit of courses is better not to postpone pregnancies for the last months, the gained knowledge has to be acquired, and skills are fulfilled. On it time is required, besides the health of the last months and a pot-belly can complicate to you life. The best time for visit of school - 2 - y a pregnancy trimester.
  • Having decided by
  • on time, decide on the program. Each school works by the technique - find out for yourself whether it suits you that is the most actual for you - theoretical part, physical training, psychological training. At the choice of a technique keep in mind, what is much better, when the school does not focus attention on any one way of obstetric aid (vertical, water, house childbirth), and lights equally all options. Then the woman herself comes to the choice of system necessary to it.
  • Before signing up in school visit her with the fact-finding purpose, look narrowly (usually the first classes are given free of charge). Pay attention to the room in which there takes place occupation, - as far as it is comfortable for you.
  • Pay much attention to professionalism and personal qualities of teachers and instructors.
  • Estimate a variety of methods of work and their compatibility.
  • Surely seriously weigh the responsibility for life and health of the child before choosing any extreme technique of childbirth. You remember: a lot of things depend on your readiness to childbirth and on your choice.