Rus Articles Journal

Gibraltar is the country, the passage or fortress?

It both passage, and country, and city, and peninsula, and fortress. All this has one name. And at the same time and the long history leaving far by 8th century AD Perhaps even earlier, archeologists managed to establish that the most ancient settlements on Gibraltar are dated several tens of thousands years B.C. Romans called

this place - the Pillars of Hercules (the mountain Gibraltar and the mountain Dzhebel - Musa). According to the ancient myth, mighty Hercules on the way to Erifey`s island met Atlassky mountains. Instead of bypassing them, it passed through mountains, the benefit force allowed. Hercules, as well as Ancient Greek Heracles - a synonym of inhuman strong man. The formed way is also the passage Gibraltar, and the Pillars of Hercules is what remained from mountains.

All value of Gibraltar - in its geographical arrangement. It is between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The second name of Gibraltar - the Rock, most precisely characterizes it. The rock about 5 km long and 1200 m wide is a peninsula. The highest point is at the height of 426 m above sea level.

But it is not just stones. From height and from the North this Scala is unapproachable therefore she has an important strategic importance. The first it was estimated by Moors. In 711 they intruded in Spain and on a northern ledge of Gibraltar constructed the fortress. Moors called this stronghold in honor of a name of the leader Tarik - ibn - Sayeeda “Dzhebel - at - Tarik“ that Tarik`s mountain means. Over time, under the influence of language features, the name turned into Dzhibraltar. Called also the city which was under construction around the lock, and subsequently and the passage.

For Moors fortress was very important outpost Europe`s first belonging to them. From there they made attacks on incorrect. Europeans absolutely needed to take control of Scala. Fortress was besieged many times by Normans, Castilians, Spaniards. In 1309 Don Alonso Perez de Guzman took fortress. The king Ferdinand IV decided that from now on this place of the reference of criminals.

But Moors returned Gibraltar back soon. And in 1462 Spaniards won the peninsula again. In several decades there was a new siege. Any more not Europeans, but the Algerian pirates decided to make Scala by the property. However approaches to fortress were unapproachable. Spaniards could keep Gibraltar within 250 years.

In the period of colonial conquests, at the beginning of the 18th century, Gibraltar began to interest the European powers. In 1704 British and Dutches in one day fought Scala off Spaniards. The peninsula became property of Great Britain.

But Spain did not reconcile to loss of Gibraltar and made many attempts to return it to itself. The fourteenth siege became the most drama and proceeded 4 years. It did not bring success to Spaniards, despite the help of French.

British located here forever. In fortress were since then and now there are serious military forces. At the end of the 20th century on the peninsula the military base was located. But now it is rather tourist center. Gibraltar is self-governed, has the government and parliament, and thanks to successful economy it is rich and rather independent of the kingdom Great Britain.

So, Gibraltar is not only the passage, the country, the city and the peninsula, and at the same time and fortress. And now - military base and very brisk sea way connecting the countries of basins of the Black and Mediterranean seas.