Why people are mistaken?We everything make mistakes. When there is something rather terrible, most often it is explained by a human mistake. Why we are mistaken? The answer was found by Joseph Hallinan and wrote the book “Why we are mistaken? Thinking traps in operation“.
All of us make mistakes. When there is something rather terrible, most often it is explained by a human mistake: plane crashes - 70%, road accidents - 90%, accidents - 90%. Call practically any mistake, and it will turn out that people are guilty of it.
Why we are mistaken? The answer was found by Joseph Hallinan. He collected many years an unusual collection - a collection of human mistakes, studied their reasons and at last found factors which force us to be mistaken.
Why we step on an old rake again?We seldom study
on the mistakes because we consider as often their reason not that is actually. When something goes not so, we have a natural desire as soon as possible to shift fault for it to somebody another. But to find out who or that should be accused, not always simply. Psychologists call this effect “tendency to overdue judgments“, or “an inaccuracy of a retrospective determinism“. The essence is that the post factum probability of an event seems to us more obvious and predictable, than actually.
Here therefore - that many mistakes after time seem to us extremely silly and impossible (“You what, slammed a door outside again?!“). And for the same reason we often absurdly approach their correction. If “the multipurpose driver“ breaks the car from - for the fact that pottered on the run with GPS on the dashboard, accuse him of accident. And meanwhile, to minimize probability of a similar outcome in the future, it is necessary to solve a problem not with the driver, and with re-equipment of the car. As we see
We see only a small share of the fact that as it seems to us, we see. The field of vision covered by an eye of the person at the concrete moment - only a small fragment of an overall picture. The organ of vision copes with this restriction, constantly rushing about to and fro; an eye moves and stops approximately on three times a second. But what at the same time an eye sees depends on the one who looks.
During one experiment the male thief pulled down a purse at the woman. And so, the women observing this scene, as a rule, paid attention to appearance and actions of the victim, and the man much more precisely and in more detail described the thief.
Experiment with a candle, or creative thinkingthe Majority of us are in the habit to approach
the solution of tasks not too creatively, especially if we already studied approach which not bad works, and got used to it. Even if the task is rather simple (though it is new). One of the most bright examples - experiment with a candle. By the way, it can be carried out also in house conditions if you do not object against to you spoiled wall-paper a little.
So, give nothing to the suspecting friend three subjects: boxes of matches, a box with small carnations also I shine. A task - to attach a candle to a wall. People, as a rule, try to beat it directly to a wall, but nothing is impossible to them because a candle too thick, and nails small. Some try to kindle a candle and to stick to a wall. And the very few guess to use a box as a candlestick, having attached it to a wall and having established in it a candle. The majority sees in korobketolko the container for nails, and nothing else. They just did not get used to think unconventionally. And would follow.
“The hope interferes with adaptation“
Such conclusion was drawn by professor Levenstein. In other words, having faced something final and irrevocable, you quickly enough learn to live with it. And the earlier you will make it, the will be happier.
It is necessary to tell, a conclusion of professor will be coordinated with results of the long-term research conducted by Siegmund Freud. He found out that, having finally become stronger in this or that decision, people often suddenly understand that everything is not so bad. For example, after election of the candidate of opposition party the voters voting against it suddenly recognize his strengths. The graduate of school, having learned that he was rejected by the university chosen by it, right there finds of it a great lot of faults. Students suddenly understand that the standardized tests are extremely prejudiced and biased, - after fail them. In other words, people adapt to a situation. But in advance we are not capable to predict it. it is useful to Think of
When you make the important decision next time, wonder that can go not so. Perhaps, such approach will seem to you excessively pessimistic, and even simply not constructive; the majority of us since the childhood urge to think positively, and of course, in it there is a rational grain.
In unsuccessful days only the positive spirit quite often keeps us from blank and final despair. But it is necessary to remember that the positive thinking hides from us traps and dirty tricks, it is quite often veiled present at a subsoil of our ideas and decisions. This approach perfectly works also in business, Paul Schoomaker claims: “If to convince people to play for themselves a role of The Devil`s Advocate - that is always to wonder what circumstances testify against adoption of this or that decision, - their self-confidence, most likely, will begin to aspire to zero“. So let`s try it to make!
the Main currency of our life
David Shkeyd, already more than ten years studying sources of human happiness, told that he came with colleagues to an unambiguous conclusion: the main currency of our life - at all not money, and time. When the person cardinally changes the life, for example moves to other city or retires, one of the biggest mistakes which he can make at the same time, - not to begin to spend the time in a new way.
Of course to reconsider and modify the approach to life, considerable determination and self-discipline is required. For this reason, according to Shkeyd, there are a lot of people, having retired, over time get a job again. All of them make the same mistake: spend the time for the same that was done earlier, and at all not on something new that was going to be begun to be done, in fact, when it am not necessary to go to office every day. Eventually the person is made happy not by(with) the place in which he lives, and how he uses the time. Forgetting about it, we, perhaps, make the biggest mistake in the life.
On book materials “Why we are mistaken? Thinking traps in operation“.