Of what ceramics Rostov Veliky is proud?In Nesterovskaya “Story of temporary years“ summer 6370 - e from creation of the world, that is 862 of postpetrovsky chronology, are noted by a mention of the city of Rostov as davny - long ago existing. Since a year 1137 when Yury Dolgorukiy reigned, Rostov carries the title Great and plays a special role in church history. to
Here in 991 delivered the very first temple in North - east Russia - church of the Dormition of the Theotokos from oak wood. The Rostov hierarches were the most influential church lords. There was a hierarchal residence nowadays known as the Rostov Kremlin.
In the Kremlin at Uspenskogo sobora Square there is a workshop. It is very pleasant to come into it. On shelves there are uncommon works of potter`s art, here masters finish clay preparations that by the time of the room in the furnace they were faultlessly smooth, and willingly answer questions. We asked, and to us allowed to work near masters. Clay during the first moments did not obey a little, but the skill came quickly enough. Now it is possible to think about several pots that they from my hands went to the world to bear pleasure to people.
Ceramics here unique - chernoloshchyony, similar to cast iron. Such met in Dyakovsky culture of III - go centuries. In the 17th century it was widespread quite widely, but in Rostov Veliky thin or stewed products were special quality for what got to the Russian Museum collection, at that time Alexander the Third museum.
To receive saturated black color with bluish outflow, products burned, and then days cooled in the furnace with birch polenets who without access of air began to smoke strongly. The muzzle of the furnace was immured, the pipe was blocked, and light pots gradually found the special color. Black looked in itself expressively and elegantly, and glassing added it highly valued metal gloss.
Apparently, the birch was used not always, not only pine “smolyak“, but also rags, manure, a fern from which there was a dense smoke were mentioned in the description of process. The ware turned out strong and waterproof. The greatest number of such ware was made by the Jewish holiday Pesakh, or Side curls. For chernoloshchyony products took ready clay dough, extended it on manual or foot potter`s wheels, polished still crude wooden tsikly, after roasting polished a spoon or tsikly before emergence of gloss again, then wearied without access of oxygen at a temperature of 800 - 900 degrees.
It is not oxidizing roasting at which the red and white ware, and recovery turns out. Iron is restored from its oxides: Fe 2 O 3 + ZSO = 2 Fe + ZSO 2 + 32 kJ/mol. And maybe, protoxide, Fe 3 scale About 4 , it black color turns out.
The glossy ceramics requires no glaze (and it expensive), the second roasting. Durability sharply increases. The product looks at the same time both ancient, and up-to-date.
Unlike Bukero`s equipment with uneven distribution it is opaque - black color, chernoloshchyony products are painted evenly. They have a metal gloss and a metal ring. I do not know other place in Russia, besides the Rostov Kremlin where would do the real chernoloshchyony ceramics. Jugs, pots, candlesticks, beer mugs, ocarinas and witty toys from Rostov Veliky can be an excellent gift owing to the uniqueness.
Goat milk in the Rostov glechik for ten days does not turn sour. To thank a goat for it, ceramics or the refrigerator - I do not know.