Gavazan - a pagan monument? Tatev`s riddle ofArmenia - the museum under the open sky and the country of riddles. Whether we know everything about the known and often visited places? Temples, monasteries, fortresses... Monastery Tatev now the most popular of them.
On the rocky cape, surrounded with the picturesque gorge of the Vorotan River, the monastery Tatev based in the 9th century was located. The monastery Tatev, or Tatevivank, is built on the place of a pagan sanctuary. Ancient architects for temples chose the places filled with energy, so-called “places of force“. Tatev - the amazing place: having visited there once, there is a wish to return and look again there, to inhale wonderful air and to be loaded with its energy. Tatev I saw destroyed and restored, but is still to what to be surprised and to open for itself something new.
What was opened by me for myself recently? I was surprised by Gavazan.
Gavazan - the shaking column in the yard of the Tatevsky monastery. It is the octahedral stone column eight meters, two meters high in a grasp put from small ashlars on an octahedral pedestal, has eaves with an ornament, hachkar above. Gavazan (staff) is constructed in 904 and devoted to the Holy Trinity.
Than this column is remarkable? Gavazan - some kind of seismograph: the column started moving during an earthquake, warning monks and residents of neighboring villages about danger. The column began to be shaken if the earth with approach of enemy army shivered. And even from a push a hand Gavazan shook. The main thing, after that Gavazan came back to a starting position.
But it in the past. Gavazan Arabs, Turks - seldzhuk many times tried to destroy, Tamerlan`s hordes, but the column resisted. After a strong earthquake of 1931 all constructions of the monastery failed: the main temple Surb Pogos - Petros (Saint apostles Pyotr and Pavel), the St. church. Grigor Lusavorich, a belfry, inhabited and utility rooms, but Gavazan resisted. In the middle of 50 - x years of the last century architects sorted a column and learned that it is established on the hinge, brought together him, but Gavazan ceased to shake. That it was not scattered, it was fastened with metal hoops to bolts. The secret of the device of a column is not solved yet, but project managers “Tatev`s Renaissance“ hope to return to Gavazan former ease.
Gavazan - a striking example of knowledge of the exact sciences the ancient architect, his creator. Gavazan call miracle of engineering art - exact calculation of the center of gravity of a construction provides it vertical position, and the hinge in the basis allowed a column to shake and come back to an initial position. In the ancient time knew and were able a lot of things, but alas, we lost or destroyed knowledge - unfortunately, in war with pagans Christians burned many libraries with ancient manuscripts, among them there is the largest library of Armenia in Bagavana (nowadays Diadin in Turkey). Which - that priests rescued. Unique manuscripts were stored in hiding places of church of St. John the Baptist to russko - the Turkish war of 1877 - 1878 during which the collection was destroyed.
The university founded by Ovnan Vorotnetsi began to work in the Tatevsky monastery in 1390. Under the leadership of Grigor Tatevatsi the university turned into the center of spiritual life and science. The university had three offices. On the first office taught philosophy, theology, grammar, literature, physics, mathematics, astronomy, history and architecture; on the second - studied painting and a calligraphy, studied art of a miniature, list, copying and decorating of books; on the third - music was taught. The Tatevsky university was named by Ditaran (observatory). Tatev repeatedly destroyed, manuscripts burned, but restored him, and he acted till 1930 when it was closed by the Soviet power.
The independent researcher Vazgen Gevorgyan in 2012 organized expedition to Tatev on the night of August 11. There at five o`clock in the morning they observed how constellation stars Orion were built to the vertical line. Why on August 11 and at what constellation Orion? Since 2492 BC up to the beginning of the XX century Armenians this day celebrated a holiday Navasard - the Armenian new year. The primogenitor of Armenians is called Eich the archer, Orion - its constellation. Navasard was celebrated in honor of a victory Ajka over White when Eich - Orion kills Bela (constellation of the Taurus) with a trekhpery arrow - 3 stars of a belt of Orion. On the night of August 11 the people headed by the tsar gathered at the mountain, sacred for Armenians, Npat, near Bagawang (place of god), and waited for emergence of a star the Alpha - Orion (Betelgeyza) which Armenians called “the Shoulder Ajka“. The star appeared in the sky by the morning and the people were celebrated by Navasard. The belt of Orion can be found in Tatev`s yard over Gavazan if to rise facing the East and a column.
Gavazan mnogofunktsionalen: the seismograph, the astronomical device, a gnomon - a sundial are located on South side above the ornament similar to two ropes twisting a column. At Gavazan princes got married on a kingdom, devoted monks in a dignity, graduates of university took examination.
Gavazan is a phallus. Still in some areas of Armenia the word Gavazan means men`s body. Childless women came to Gavazan to touch him and to ask for god of force for the husband to have children. A phallus - a pagan symbol of fertility and revival. But the Christianity from the first days fought against all pagan: symbols, ceremonies, holidays.
It is surprising that the author of such unusual construction if he is constructed in 904 is unknown, - those centuries architects left a name at the works. Perhaps, in 904 on it it was established hachkar. But maybe, Christians did not destroy Gavazan as destroyed pagan temples, from him there was an advantage: he warned about earthquakes and invasions of enemy armies.
On an octahedral pedestal pedestals of some figures remained. There is an opinion that on them there were figures of twelve apostles, but fragments of these figures did not remain. Over Gavazan watched a belt of Orion. Number 12 at me is associated with zodiac signs. There is a version that the name of the area - Syunik where Tatev is located, came from the word “syun“ (column).
How many years to Gavazan? What else secrets are kept by Tatev?