what such interesting occurred in Pythagoras`s life???Pythagoras. What do we know about this person? That he lived many years ago, wrote several compositions “About education“, “About the state“, “About the nature“, “About soul“ and Pythagorean theorem about a ratio of the parties of a rectangular triangle (“Pythagorean trousers - on all parties are equal“). It is not enough for such outstanding personality. Let`s go deep into its biography and we learn about it more. Pifago`s
́ r Sa ́ mosskiya (other - Greek Π υ θ α γ ό ρ α ς ὁ Σ ά μ ι ο ς lat. Pythagoras; 570-490 BC) - the Ancient Greek philosopher and the mathematician, religious and the politician, the mystic, the creator of a pifagorizm, the creator it is religious - philosophical school of Pythagoreans. His name is born by Pythagorean theorem. you knew
A??? it is difficult for
to separate History of life of Pythagoras from the legends representing Pythagoras as the demigod and the wonder-worker, the perfect wise man and great devoted in all sacraments of Greeks and barbarians. Still Herodotus called him “the most great Hellenic wise man“. The main sources on life and Pythagoras`s doctrine are the works which reached us: the philosopher - Yamvlikh`s neoplatonik (242-306) “About Pythagorean life“; Porfiriya (234-305) “Pythagoras`s Life“; Diogenes Laertsky (200-250) book 8, “Pythagoras“. These authors were guided by compositions of earlier authors from which it is necessary to mark out the pupil Aristotle Aristoksen (370-300 BC) it is from Tarent where positions of Pythagoreans were strong. Thus, the earliest known sources wrote about Pythagoras 200 years later after his death, and Pythagoras did not leave own written works, and all information about him and his doctrine is based on works of his pupils, not always impartial.
Defeat of an award of Pythagoreans:
Among followers and Pythagoras`s pupils appeared many representatives of the nobility who tried to change laws in the cities according to the Pythagorean doctrine. Usual fight of that era between oligarchical and democratic parties in Ancient Greek society was imposed on it. The discontent of most of the population which is not dividing the philosopher`s ideals developed into bloody mutinies in Crotone and Tarenta. Yamvlikh with reference to Apollonia who used archives from Crotone, states defeat of Pythagoreans in Crotone so:
“Pythagoreans formed big community (they were more than three hundred), but it made only small part of the city which did not cope according to the same customs and customs any more. However, so far codiaeums owned the earth, and Pythagoras was at them, the state system existing from the founding of the city though were dissatisfied expecting an opportunity for revolution remained. But when conquered Sybaris, Pythagoras left, and the Pythagoreans operating the won earth did not distribute it on a lot as the majority wanted, the concealed hatred flashed, and the great number of citizens opposed them … Relatives of Pythagoreans treated with even big irritation to the fact that those offer the right hand only the, and from relatives - only to parents and that they provide the property for general use, and from property of relatives it is separated. When relatives began this hostility, the others readily joined the conflict … In many years … the regret and repentance seized codiaeums, and they decided to return to the city of those Pythagoreans who were still living“. Many Pythagoreans died, survivors dissipated across Italy and Greece. The German historian F. Shlosser notices concerning defeat of Pythagoreans: “Attempt to transfer exclusive and clerical life to Greece and, counter to spirit of the people, to change its political system and customs according to requirements of the abstract theory came to an end in perfect failure“.
is A little from the biography:
Pythagoras`s Parents were Mnesarkh and Partenida from Samos. Mnesarkh was a stone-cutter (Diogenes Laertsky); by words Porfiriya it was the rich merchant from the Shooting gallery who obtained Samos citizenship for distribution of bread in lean year. As I know Pythagoras - it is not a name, but the nickname given it for the fact that he stated truth as constantly as the Delphic oracle “Pythagoras“ means “convincing the speech“. His name (nickname) Pythagoras is made of two half and means “beginning to see clearly harmony“ because pifiya in Ancient Greece were priestesses - prophets, and Gore in Ancient Egypt personified Partenid`s harmony, later renamed by the husband into Pifaida, came from a noble family of Ankey, the founder of the Greek colony on Samos. The birth of the child as if was predicted by a pifiya in Delphi therefore Pythagoras also received the name which means “that whom declared Pifiya“. Partenida accompanied the husband on his trips, and Pythagoras was born in Sidon Phoenician (across Yamvlikh) approximately in 570 BC. According to antique authors, Pythagoras met nearly all famous wise men of that era, Greeks, Persians, impudent persons, Egyptians, absorbed in himself all knowledge accumulated by mankind. In popular literature sometimes attribute to Pythagoras the Olympic victory in boxing, confusing Pythagoras - the philosopher with his namesake (Pythagoras, Kratet`s son from Samos) who won the victory on 48 - x Games in 18 years prior to the birth of the famous philosopher. At early age Pythagoras went to Egypt to be gathered wisdom and secret knowledge at the Egyptian priests. Diogenes and Porfiry write that the Samos tyrant Polikrat supplied Pythagoras with the letter of recommendation to the Pharaoh Amasis thanks to what he was allowed to training and is devoted in sacraments, forbidden for other strangers. Yamvlikh writes that Pythagoras in 18 - summer age left the native island and, having gone round wise men in the different world`s ends, reached Egypt where stayed 22 years until it was taken away to Babylon among captives by the Persian tsar Kambiz who conquered Egypt in 525 BC. Pythagoras stayed in Babylon 12 more years, communicating with magicians until at last could return to Samos in 56 - summer age where compatriots recognized him as the wise person. Across Porfiry, Pythagoras left Samos from - for disagreement with the tyrannical power of Polikrat in 40 - summer age. As these data are based in words Aristoksen, a source of the 4th century BC, are considered as rather reliable. Polikrat came to the power in 535 BC, from here date of birth of Pythagoras is estimated in 570 BC if to assume that he went to Italy in 530 BC Yamvlikh reports that Pythagoras moved to Italy in 62 - yu the Olympic Games, that is in 532-529 BC. These data will well be coordinated with Porfiry, but completely contradict Yamvlikh`s legend (more true, one of its sources) about the Babylon capture of Pythagoras. It is precisely unknown whether Pythagoras visited Egypt, Babylon or Phoenicia where he was taken on legends of east wisdom. Diogenes Laertsky quotes Aristoksen who said that the doctrine, at least as for manuals on a way of life, Pythagoras apprehended from the priestess Femistoklei Delfiyskaya, that is in places of confinement for Greeks. Disagreements with the tyrant Polikrat could hardly serve as the reason of departure of Pythagoras, rather it needed an opportunity to preach the ideas and, moreover, to realize the doctrine that it is difficult to carry out in Ionia and continental Hellas where there lived a lot of tempted in questions of philosophy and policy of people. Yamvlikh reports:
“Its philosophy extended, all Hellas began to admire it, both the best and the wisest the husband came to it to Samos, wishing to listen to its doctrine. Fellow citizens, however, forced it to participate in all embassies and public affairs. Pythagoras felt how it is heavy, submitting to laws of the fatherland, to go in at the same time for philosophy, and saw that all former philosophers lived life in the foreign land. Having considered all this, having departed from public affairs and as tell some, including insufficient a low assessment by samosets of its doctrine, he went to Italy, considering the fatherland the country where there are more people, capable to training.“
Pythagoras lodged in the Greek colony Crotone in the Southern Italy where he found many followers. They were attracted not only by occult philosophy which he convincingly stated, but also the way of life ordered them with elements of healthy asceticism and strict morals. Pythagoras preached a moral upclassing of the ignorant people who is possible for reaching where the power belongs to a caste of the wise and knowing people and to which the people will obey in something unconditionally as children to parents, and it is for the rest conscious, submitting to the moral authority. Pythagoras`s pupils formed some kind of religious award, or a brotherhood devoted, consisting of a caste of the selected adherents literally idolizing the teacher and the founder. This award actually came in Crotone to the power, however from - for anti-Pythagorean moods at the end of the 6th century BC Pythagoras had to leave in other Greek colony of Metapont where he also died. Nearly 450 years later at the time of Cicero (1st century BC) in Metaponta as one of sights showed Pythagoras`s crypt. Pythagoras had a wife by the name of Feano, the son Telavg and the daughter Mnya. Across Yamvlikh, Pythagoras headed the secret society thirty nine years, then approximate date of death of Pythagoras can be carried to 491 BC, to the beginning of an era of Greco - the Persian wars. Diogenes, referring to Heracleides (4th century BC) says that Pythagoras peacefully died at the age of 80 years, or in 90 years (on unnamed other sources). From this date of death 490 follows BC (or 480 BC that is improbable). Evsevy Kesariysky in the chronography designated 497 BC as year of death of Pythagoras. It is very interesting to
In the Greek souvenir little shops enjoys wide popularity a so-called mug of Pythagoras. It is a vessel in which it is possible to pour liquid only to a certain mark, but if to pour above, everything will flow out. This effect is reached by means of twice curved channel in the center of a mug which one end is open from a bottom, and another leaves inside. Pouring out of liquid occurs according to the law of Pascal on communicating vessels. On a legend, Pythagoras invented this mug for moderate consumption of wine and punishment of too greedy.
Many Ancient Greek thinkers, including Demosfen, Democritus, Socrates, Aristotle and Hippocrates, participated in the Olympic Games. Pythagoras was the champion in fisticuffs, and Platon won ancient single combat competitions to a pankration. Pythagoras established in the mathematical way to
danger of the seventh month of pregnancy as the sacred number seven influenced destiny. At the heart of life, he considered, number 40 therefore it calculated pregnancy term as 7, increased on 40, - lies 280 days.
as a result of the first given lecture Pythagoras got 2000 pupils who did not come back home, and together with the wives and children formed enormous school and created the state called “Great Greece“ which basis laws and Pythagoras`s rules were.
Religious beliefs of Pythagoras were based that the souls which did not get to Heaven move in animals or bodies of other people. Therefore his pupils were vegetarians, there is a meat and it was forbidden to make a bloody sacrifice to gods in the form of animals. Some requirements of religion of Pythagoras are perceived as amusing incidents now. For example, Pythagoreans were never recommended to eat beans and not to allow swallows to arrange nests under roofs, not to touch a white rooster.
Pythagoras is an inventor of the lever.
of the Phrase of Pythagoras are very simple, but despite it they also are very wise. Pythagoras liked to tell clever phrases and did not love silly at all. Here some of these phrases (quotes).
“Life is similar to merrymakings: others come to them to compete, others - to trade, and - to watch the happiest“.
“After the person lived fifteen times, it can gain enough qualities (put - telny or negative) not to come back to the earth any more, and to continue existence in the highest life form. You live 1y time, and can happen so that you have 15 “attempts““.
of the Composition of Pythagoras. Pythagoras did not write
treatises. For the simple people it is impossible to make the treatise of oral manuals, and the secret occult doctrine for the elite could not be entrusted the book. Yamvlikh so comments on lack of works of Pythagoras:
“Is remarkable as well their persistence on nondisclosure of the doctrine: so many years prior to generation of Filolaya as it is represented, nobody faced one Pythagorean composition. Phylobark by the first of Pythagoreans published three sensational books which as speak, bought Dion from Sirakuz for hundred mines according to Platon`s instructions when Filolay fell into extreme need.“ Diogenes lists to
names of these books attributed to Pythagoras: “About education“, “About the state“ and “About the nature“. However any of authors in the first 200 years after Pythagoras`s death, including Platon, Aristotle and their successors in Academy and Lyceum, does not cite Pythagoras`s works or at least points to existence of such works.
of the Composition of Pythagoras.
In the 3rd century BC appeared the compilation of statements of Pythagoras known under the name “Sacred Word“ from which later there were so-called “Gold verses“ (sometimes they are carried to the 4th century BC without strong reasons). For the first time quotes from these verses are quoted by Hrisipp in the 3rd century BC though, perhaps, at that time compilation did not develop in the finished look yet. A final fragment from “Gold verses“ in translation I. Petter:
You be firm: the divine sort is present in mortal,
It, announcing, sacred everything is opened by the nature.
If is not alien it to you, you will execute orders, the Soul will cure
and will relieve of a set of disasters.
Viands, was told by me, leave that I specified in clarifications
I be guided by original knowledge - the best charioteer.
If you, a body having left, in free air you will rise,
you Will become imperishable, both the eternal, and not knowing death god.
List of references.
Is taken from the Internet and from the book A. V. Voloshanov.