Why we act this way, but not differently?On a question where there is a soul of the person, usually answer - in heart, and mind - in the head. Since ancient times of people interested where there is that body which operates our feelings, behavior, thoughts. Only in the XX century scientists approached the answer when scientific studying of a brain began.
the Human brain weighs on average 2 - 2,5% of body weight, but it regulates all functions of an organism. We can raise a hand or bend a leg only if from a head and spinal cord on neurons the corresponding impulse is transferred. But the person performs not only simple operations. We read, we create novels and art pictures, we play sports, we make the most difficult surgeries, discoveries, we master space. But together with technical progress our feelings remain same, as well as thousands years ago. We laugh, we cry, we are angry, take offense, aggressively we attack or we are protected.
One of the most difficult questions in psychology: how our behavior is formed? What forces us to arrive definitely? Why chooses from many potentially possible options of people only one? The answer to it is given by psychophysiologists.
The Soviet scientist P. K. Anokhin created the theory of functional systems which is one of main in studying and understanding of physiology and psychology. Its essence consists that all bodies of our organism are united in system. Only then they can carry out the functions. For example, the stomach can work only in a complex with other bodies of a gastrointestinal tract, heart needs lungs and vessels to pump over blood on an organism and so on. Our behavior is too functional system which is directed to adaptation of an organism to environment in this concrete time, and also its active transformation. The central place in functional system is taken by result of action and its assessment. To achieve result - means to change a ratio between an organism and Wednesday in the direction, useful to an organism. For realization of the intentions of people there pass several stages.
scientists call the first stage the difficult term “afferent synthesis“. It defines all further behavior of the person. In the beginning there is a requirement (motivational excitement) then the brain estimates external environment and analyzes last experience.
At second stage (an acceptor of results of action) the person makes the decision, predicting at the same time result. It means that before to make something, the person has an image of desirable result.
At third stage makes a certain action. Again - here again the large role is played by the previous experience of the person.
The fourth stage is called the return afferentation. The impulsation from receptors about success or not success of the performed operation comes to a brain.
And, at last, on of the fifth , a final stage , correction of behavior if the performed operations do not lead to desirable result happens.
Of course, in ours daily activity we never think of this process. We perform the majority of operations automatically. Though the simplest example - to go to kitchen to have dinner, it clearly demonstrates. The person feels need for food, goes on kitchen and estimates refrigerator contents. If that appears futile, each person begins to behave differently. Someone puts on an apron and begins to prepare independently, someone goes to cookery and buys ready food, someone asks the wife, mother, the husband, the grandmother to prepare something, someone will make scandal why in the house the empty refrigerator and if someone has enough money, then it goes to restaurant. This theory partially explains the reasons of our behavior which is usually unique for each person. It is based on a ratio of requirements and last experience of the person (positive or negative), his knowledge and abilities, relationship with other people and so on.
Some functional systems are plastic, that is are capable to change the components making it. For example, only certain bodies, and any others participate in FS of breath. And here the motive system is very plastic. For example, to move from a point And to a point of B (that is to achieve result), it is possible to go, run, jump, grabble, to creep on - plastoon, to go with use of different types of transport (that is to choose a certain way of achievement of the purpose).
The quantity of behavioural situations at each person can be unlimited. All our life consists of certain actions. Not for nothing psychologists speak: if you want to receive something new, make what earlier never did.