Rus Articles Journal

Diabetes and hypertension - the first symptoms: norms of pressure and sugar

C of what begin such diseases how a hypertension and diabetes extended today? Whether it is possible most to suspect wrong by results of analyses and to figures of arterial pressure? What to consider as a deviation and that norm, so far as concerns such indicators how pulse, cholesterol, hemoglobin? The skilled doctor and the author of the popular book advises.

Arterial pressure

Norm of arterial pressure today to 139 on 94. And is 140 on 95 already arterial hypertension (a hypertensive illness, a hypertension) above. These are average norms. If at the person in principle pressure is raised or lowered if it has a diabetes if the woman is pregnant, then indicators change. But ideal pressure is considered not 120 on 80 as we once thought, and 110 on 70.

pressure is correct to measure

too it is necessary to be able. Even doctors not especially think of it. The doctor comes, hasty covers with a cuff and measures pressure. Actually pressure has to be measured at rest three times. That is you came, five minutes sat, and only after that to you measure pressure. Then you sit five minutes again - once again measure. You have again a rest, and procedure repeats for the third time. It is clear, that in daily practice of it is not done, and in vain.

Doctors well know

about existence of “effect of a white dressing gown“ when results of measurement of arterial pressure in an office of the doctor are higher on of 30 - 40 mm a mercury column, than at independent measurement of the house. Such increase is connected with a stress which is caused in the patient by a situation of medical institution.

people, for example, the athletes adapted to big loadings, have normal pressure 100 on 60 or even 90 by 50 mm of a mercury column. But at all variety of “normal“ indicators of arterial pressure each person usually knows norm of the pressure, in any case, accurately catches any deviations from it in this or that party.

Sugar in blood

What is normal sugar? Unfortunately, even not all doctors know today with what indicators violation of a carbohydrate exchange begins. I mean data on increase of sugar in blood. Indicators between 6,1 and 7 were considered as very long starting point, called it a preddiabetny condition and violation of a carbohydrate exchange. And today in WHO recommendations there are same figures.

At Americans a few other figures. They consider that limit rate of sugar - 5,7, everything that above - prediabetes and the increased sugar level. Means, the person gets to a risk zone: development of diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, violation of a cholesteric exchange is possible. Means, it is necessary to sound alarm, to apply measures. And if already is 7 diabetes.

If the repeated analysis on the sugar measured on an empty stomach, twice with an interval in days gives

> 7 - these are diagnostic criteria of diabetes. And existence of diabetes for the patient is the repeatedly increased risk of a heart disease. Doctors equate existence of diabetes to existence of atherosclerosis of vessels of heart. If it becomes clear

by p that sugar in blood at you is raised, to you can appoint in addition the glikozilirovanny hemoglobin test, especially if there is a question of specification of the diagnosis of diabetes. This test allows to reveal both obvious diabetes, and its latent forms which the usual analysis on sugar does not reveal. Also it is necessary to remember that the norm of sugar in blood does not depend on age though at the same time can fluctuate depending on that from where take blood: from a finger or a vein.

About cholesterol

of the Norm of cholesterol identical to all does not exist. It depends on age, sex, heredity and many other factors. In blood cholesterol is present at a type of two types of connections: lipoproteins of low density (LLD) and lipoproteins of high density (LHD). Lipoproteins of low density are harmful as they start a chain of events, the arteries bringing in a result to obstruction. The worst option of development is as follows: surplus of lipoproteins of low density causes formation of plaques on walls of arteries, the gleam of vessels is narrowed that, in turn, causes warmly - vascular diseases. Results of many researches show that the LNP level is higher (that is “bad“ cholesterol), the probability of a myocardial infarction is higher.

Another matter - lipoproteins of high density. It is so-called good cholesterol. It is really useful to heart and vessels. LVP “cling“ to LNP causing formation of plaques and by that promote their removal from a blood-groove. The more “good“ cholesterol, the risk of development of heart troubles and vessels is lower.

. At the same time “good cholesterol“ has to be 1,55 mmol/l. It is reached first of all by a healthy lifestyle: physical activities, small dose of alcohol, healthy food.


was considered Earlier that at the healthy person 40 years are younger, not having addictions, “bad“ cholesterol can be 190 mg/dl (4,91 mmol/l). Now these indicators decreased to 160, but if you the smoker or you have an elevated pressure, then “bad“ cholesterol has to be lower than 130 (3,33 mmol/l). If you have a diabetes, then your norm - less than 100 (2,58 mmol/l), and the it is less, the better. But it is worth to remember that without cholesterol it is impossible to live. This beginning of all hormones, without it we would not last out also day.

From what age cholesterol is the best of all to check

? You think that since 40 years? No! From fifteen! Especially it concerns teenagers who in a sort had people who had diseases of heart, vessels. And such teenagers should be checked regularly!

About hemoglobin

Hemoglobin - complex protein as a part of erythrocytes, two-piece: squirrel (globin) and compounds of iron (gem). Atoms of iron (gem) do blood red. Hemoglobin participates in process of transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide between lungs and cages of other bodies. The norm is considered of 120 - 140 mg on liter at women and 130 - 160 at men.

the Lack of hemoglobin is called anemia. Versions its great variety. At women it is usually iron deficiency anemia, as it is clear (regular losses of blood monthly), old men have an anemia from - for shortages of certain vitamins. Besides many chronic diseases can be followed by shortage of hemoglobin.

to Understand anemia etymology - business of the doctor. But what you have to remember?

  1. Even minimum (several drops), but daily losses of blood can pour out in heavy anemia. Therefore gemorroidalny knots, myomas of a uterus, an erosion demand supervision and treatment.
  2. At men existence even of the minimum anemia is the basis for careful diagnostics: so stomach ulcer or an oncological disease can be shown.
  3. the Black chair - a symptom zheludochno - intestinal bleeding, you watch it and at emergence see a doctor at once. Only do not panic: many preparations and foodstuff containing iron can paint a chair in black color.
  4. If you have chronic pains - head, articulate, - and to you appointed long therapy anesthetic, surely take stomach ulcer medicine together with the appointed preparation and be regularly checked. The set of severe gastric bleedings is provoked by protivospalitelny anesthetizing preparations.


What is norm of pulse? Pulse - the periodic fluctuations of volume of vessels connected with reductions of heart, caused by dynamics of their krovenapolneniye and pressure in them during one warm cycle. At the average healthy person normal pulse at rest equals 60 - 80 to beats per minute.

needs to pay attention to the following features. Pulse rate of the healthy person during the day fluctuates. So, the lowest values of pulse are observed early in the morning and late evening. Pulse reaches the highest values in the late afternoon. In a prone position pulse less than in a sitting position and the more so standing. Thus, it is necessary to measure pulse at the same time and in the same situation. It is the best of all to do it in the mornings, lying, right after awakening. The most exact values can be received if to count pulse within one minute.

should not check pulse if you just ate, drank wines or took medicine if you are very hungry, were just engaged in hard physical or mental work, did massage, took a bath, sat at fire, were on the sun or a frost, badly slept or you have critical days.

pulse Increase (more than 100 beats per minute) is called tachycardia and requires attention. It can be a reason for the address to the doctor. Pulse is more rare than 50 beats per minute is called bradycardia and also requires special attention, maybe, even bigger, than at tachycardia.

the Rhythm of pulse is defined by intervals between separate pulse blows. At the healthy person pulse time intervals are always identical. Arrhythmia is the abnormality of pulse characterized by unequal intervals. It is possible to reveal arrhythmia at manual measurement of pulse, but even better some models of digital measuring instruments of arterial pressure supplied with the measuring instrument of pulse and determinant of arrhythmia allow to make it. Spasmodic pulse has a set of versions, from quite harmless to deadly therefore at detection it is necessary to see immediately a doctor and to make the electrocardiogram. The important indicator - is how fast restored pulse after physical activity. At all heart after rise on a ladder strongly fights, but if it at you continues strongly and is speeded up to fight after 2 - 3 minutes of rest, then it is already a reason for concern.

From the book How to live longer than 50 years.
Honest conversation with the doctor on drugs and medicine