Rus Articles Journal

Compost and mulch: how to prepare? Dacha and organic waste of

More and more gardeners adhere on giving the principles of organic agriculture - punch vegetable waste and use mulchirovany soils. How to start business if you never prepared compost and did not get rid of weeds by means of a mulch? The most important rules of an environmentally friendly kitchen garden.

What place it is better for em to choose


for compost?

the Place for compost has to be shaded and protected from wind, it is necessary to avoid a compost peresushivaniye. At the same time absolutely windless place is also not suitable for a composting from - for deteriorations in ventilation. At a lack of a natural shadow near containers with compost it is possible to plant a tree, a bush or just high flowers which will give a necessary shadow and will decorate the platform for compost.

What it is impossible to add to compost?

Everything that does not decay by means of microorganisms: glass, metal objects, a wire, a foil, the any kinds of plastic, ceramics, construction debris, textiles, any chemical preparations affected with mushroom diseases of a plant and the newspaper.

From plants cannot add a foxglove, a tomato, potato tops of vegetable, a castor-bean tree, a broom, a lily of the valley to compost, akonit - process of a composting will not be effective as the toxic agents which are contained in these plants kill part of the microorganisms participating in decomposition, and compost ripens more slowly.

What it is possible to add to compost from house waste?

Most often to compost food waste goes: potato purifications, an egg shell, the remains of vegetables, cabbage cabbage stumps, the spoiled vegetables and fruit, a banana peel, weak tea leaves of tea. All organic waste and the remains from the house and a garden, especially those that have a phytogenesis are suitable for a composting. These are herbs, plants - siderata, harvest waste (vegetables, fruit), garden waste, manure, bark, foliage, needles (pine, fir-tree), straw, sawdust and other materials.

In what look all this can be put in compost?

of the Plant - siderata. green material Rich with protein quickly decays, without creating problems. Before a bookmark to allow to dry up, put layers, alternating more rough materials.

Hay and straw. Are valuable material, connect moisture in compost, create good porous structure of compost that provides oxygen access. To crush and allow to dry up, mix carefully with nitrogen-containing green material of the punched plants, kitchen organic waste and to put in compost thin layers.

Foliage. It is poor in nutrients. That the foliage did not get off lumps, it should be dried if there is opportunity, to crush and put in compost thin layers, mixing with other vegetable and more rough materials. At a composting of the foliage of an oak containing tannic acid in large numbers the lime additive - pushonka is desirable (on 10 kg of foliage - of 200 - 300 limes - pushonka).

Wood sawdust. Are characterized by the low content of nitrogen and very badly decay therefore it is necessary to mix carefully them with green material of plant material, to bring bone meal and to add manure for increase of content of nitrogen and acceleration of decomposition.

Wood bark. In comparison with sawdust differs in higher content of nitrogen, but nevertheless needs introduction of nitrogen-containing additives: bird`s dung or manure, urea, also introduction of lime at the rate of 10 kg/sq.m of bark for decomposition process is recommended.

Food waste. Are valuable organic weight and differ in the high speed of decomposition. For prevention of processes of rotting food waste should be mixed with more rough material providing them sufficient ventilation (for example, with sawdust).

Manure. From - for the high content of nitrogen it is very favorable for compost, is the catalyst of processes of decomposition. It is recommended to put manure one of layers among material of which compost is made, to powder from above with the earth.

Paper. it is good to strong to add to compost. It well decays thanks to the cellulose which is contained in it. Paper before a bookmark in compost to crush and wet, it is better in grass infusion that together with moisture it incorporated additional nutrients. To display thin layers, combining with rough material, otherwise wet paper will get off in lumps, and it will complicate decomposition process. whether

Can be added

to compost the inseminated weeds?

to prevent distribution of seeds of weeds on a garden as a part of compost, plants with seeds it is necessary to wet previously in barrels with water within 10 days and only after that to put in compost. That in compost weeds did not expand, contain it without access of light, cover with dark impenetrable material (a black film, roofing material).

What duration of decomposition of compost?

Duration of process of decomposition of compost depends on desirable quality of the final product, it can proceed also till 12 months, and till 2 years. Decomposition begins very violently and is slowed down at the subsequent stages. Compost needs to be mixed to intensify process of decomposition and to reach its uniformity in all layers. After hashing temperature in the thickness of compost at first goes down, but then promptly increases from - for activization of process of decomposition in connection with oxygen inflow.

In what compost advantages?

Compost is the favorable environment for development of microorganisms and intensifies activity of soil fauna.

Thanks to activity of microorganisms in compost and the soil fertilized by it it is p possible to suppress activity of pathogenic microorganisms or to constrain their development.

As initial materials for receiving compost are selected by ourselves, it is possible not to be afraid of impurity harmful to a condition of the soil and health of plants of substances.

Compost comprehensively improves structure of the soil, returning its initial abilities to detain nutrients and moisture in a soil blanket.

Compost differs in the soft dosed fertilizing action on plants.

Receiving a humus by means of a composting happens quickly enough, cheap and directly on the place of further direct use.

Process of receiving compost is very eco-friendly and close to

to natural processes in essence.

What advantage of a mulchirovaniye?


is a concealment of beds peat, humus, straw, sawdust and other porous organic materials.

the Mulching layer gives to

favorable conditions for activity of soil microorganisms. There is a decomposition of the organic mulching cover, process of a mineralization of nutrients accelerates, digestion of nutrients plants improves and accelerates.

Decomposition of an organic mulchmaterial happens directly on the soil therefore valuable nutrients are not lost, and the soil due to decomposition of the mulching material constantly has additional nutrients.

the soil Covered with organic fertilizers gets warm in the spring quicker, slezhivatsya less and condensed.

the Mulching cover does to

unnecessary loosening of the soil as roots of plants are already well supplied with oxygen due to lack of the condensed crust. It allows to avoid mechanical damage of gentle superficial backs.

the Mulching cover suppresses growth and development of weeds, protects the soil from an erosion, impacts of wind, formation of cracks and a dry crust on a soil surface.

the Protective cover provides to

uniform moistening of the soil and supports constant water balance due to considerable reduction of evaporation of moisture from a soil surface.

at the expense of a constant mulchirovaniye of a surface of the soil can reduce amount of the introduced fertilizers as in the presence of the mulching layer their washing away considerably is reduced.

its ability to absorb and hold a solar heat therefore, changing coloring of a surface of the soil, it is possible to regulate its thermal properties in many respects depends On color of the soil. An important role in regulation of the thermal mode of the soil is played by a mulchirovaniye.

the Dark mulch on a surface of the soil attracts sunshine and quickly absorbs heat. It promotes good warming up of the soil. The light mulch, on the contrary, increases ability of a surface of the soil to reflect sunshine that interferes with overheating of the soil under the mulching cover, so, saves roots of plants from influence of high temperatures.

Process of a mulchirovaniye with the subsequent decomposition of organic substance is one of ways of enrichment of the soil a humus.


of the Practician that after several years of a mulchirovaniye the volume of the time of the soil filled by water and air considerably increases, so, improves its air - and water penetration which are one of the main indicators of health of the soil.

From the book “Gold 6 Hundred Parts“