Rus Articles Journal

Asparagus, artichoke, salad chicory - cultivation and leaving of

Even more often we should try the vegetable cultures which are a little extended in our corner of the world - an asparagus, an artichoke, salad chicory. And how to grow up them independently? Seeds or seedling? How it is correct to pave the way for vegetable - escape and vegetable - an inflorescence? Oktyabrina Ganichkina advises.

the Asparagus

the Asparagus - the perennial plant, forms a fleshy rhizome and thick white roots in which nutrients collect. From kidneys on a rhizome the powerful escapes giving bunches of the thin, gentle small stalks playing a role of leaves develop. Being in the soil, escapes keep white coloring, and having come to light, become darkly - green, grow coarse and branch. Adult bushes of an asparagus reach height of 2 m

the Asparagus - a plant dvudomny: man`s copies are more fruitful also skorospela, than female.

From escapes of an asparagus are prepared by salads, garnishes, soups, they are used in a boiled, stewed, fried and tinned look.

the Asparagus also has medicinal properties: serves as a diuretic, helps at diseases of kidneys, hearts, rheumatism, gout, reduces a blood pressure and takes off fatigue.

Adult plants have enough

cold-resistant, but seeds sprout amicably only at 20 - 25 ° With, and shoots suffer from frosts. Optimum temperature for growth of escapes - 10 - 12 ° Pages

the Asparagus of a vlagolyubiv, at a lack of water escapes get bitterness, become fibrous, and, on the contrary, at surplus its roots rot and die off. It is very exacting to fertility and structure of soils, plants well grow on soils easy, fertile, rich with organic substance. The asparagus does not transfer sour soils and close standing of ground waters.

the Site under an asparagus is prepared in the fall. The soil dig over on depth 35 - 40 cm and bring of 10 - 12 kg/m 2 humus or compost. In the spring it digs over again, add mineral fertilizers: 1 tablespoon (25 g) of “Agricola for root crops“ or a nitrofoska on 1 m 2 .

Cultivation. the Asparagus is grown up in generally rassadny way. Under a nursery take away a site with a friable fertile soil with introduction under redigging of 5 - 6 kg/m 2 humus or compost and according to 1 h to a spoon of urea, superphosphate, potassium sulfate on 1 m 2 . The surface is leveled, do grooves at distance of 20 - 25 cm and plentifully watered with solution of a growth factor of “Energen“: 1 capsule is parted in 5 l of water.

Seeds before crops 2 - 3 keep day

in warm solution (25 ° C) “Agricola Veget“, in 0,5 l of water is dissolved by 1 St. spoon, they are kept in a fabric sack within 3 days. The bulked-up seeds scatter on fabric, from above cover with other damp fabric and put to the warm place (20 - 25 ° Ñ). The turned-up seeds sow on depth of 3 cm with distance among 6 - 8 cm and mulch humus a layer 1 cm. Landing is carried out at the beginning of June.

Shoots thin out

, leaving distance of between them 10 - 15 cm Through 15 days after shoots an asparagus feed up organic fertilizers: on 10 l of water part 2 tablespoons of “Agricola Forvard“ or “Universal Rossa“.

to receive the bleached asparagus, during rykhleniye of row-spacings soil is raised at first by 10 cm, further for 10 - 15, that the humus layer over a rhizome made not less than 25 cm

In the next 2 years loosening of the soil, watering and top dressing by solutions of fertilizers are necessary.

are cut off in the Fall by escapes at a surface of the soil and burn them, ranks cover with manure, peat or leaves.

Reap a crop in May of the third year. For this purpose the soil is carefully otgrebat from escapes and cut out them a sharp knife, and holes fill up again. Collecting the bleached asparagus spend daily and only at cold cloudy weather through 2 - 3 days. Good escapes have to have length of 15 - 20 cm and thickness of 1 - 1,5 cm One plant on average gives of 10 - 12 escapes, sometimes - to 30, weighing of 20 - 30 g

of the Grade of an asparagus. Arzhanteylsky early - early; escapes are large, low-fibrous, white, have pink heads, elevated young escapes is green - violet. Mary Vashington - mid-season; escapes very large, thick, yellowish. Elevated escapes it is green - violet. It is good for receiving a green asparagus. Early yellow - new domestic early; escapes are gentle, white with a dense yellow head. Elevated escapes zelenovato - yellow. It is steady against diseases. Fruitful - 6 - mid-season; escapes are thick, large, white, heads pink. On a soil surface they get is green - violet coloring.

the Artichoke

the Artichoke - a perennial plant, the valuable dietary product containing inulin, carotene, vitamin C. In food use a receptacle (collum) and the fleshy bases external scales of large unblown inflorescences (basket). The gentle pulp of an artichoke has pleasant taste.

the Artichoke is cultivated by

in the southern regions of Russia: in Krasnodar Krai and in the North Caucasus.

the Plant forms large leaves and strongly developed vegetative weight. The stalk reaches height of 1,5 - 2 m

Leaves green, large, prickly, form the large radical socket. Flowers bluish, are collected in large spherical inflorescences - baskets with a diameter of of 10 - 25 cm the Roots which are strongly developed, long, rod. In the fall the elevated part of a plant dies off, and it is cut off. In the spring from the wintering rhizomes new stalks develop.

the Artichoke is thermophilic

, transfers only small frosts (to − 3 ° Ñ). At careful warming by manure, straw or leaves roots can winter in the soil. In the southern areas and in the Midland it is cultivated as long-term ukryvny culture, in northern areas of a nonchernozem zone - only as one-year culture.

Placement. the Artichoke is grown up on the fertile soils rich with organic substance and well provided with moisture. The site allocated under an artichoke has to be protected from norths.

Make multiple copies this culture seeds or seedling. The artichoke grows on one place till 10 years.

Crops. Semyon in an open ground sow only when the soil well gets warm. In each hole put 2 - 3 sunflower seeds on . Distance between rows - of 70 - 90 cm, between holes - 70 cm. Shoots are thinned out, leaving no more than two plants in a hole. At one-year culture the artichoke is grown up from seedling. For this purpose damp seeds couch in 5 - 6 sawdust days at a temperature of 20 - 25 ° With and when they turn up, place in damp sand and maintain in the refrigerator at 0 - 2 ° With, without allowing frost penetration. The seeds prepared thus sow in the boxes or pots filled with fertile friable soil, the optimum term of crops in the southern and central regions of Non-Black Earth Region - the first half of March, in northern - the end of March - the beginning of April.

In a phase of the first present sheet seedlings dive in pots and continue their cultivation at a temperature in sunny days 20 - 22 ° With, in cloudy - not lower than 15 - 17 ° C. When threat of frosts passes, plants land ranks on ridges at distance 40 - 50 cm from each other (at one-year culture) and of 50 - 70 cm (at long-term).

Leaving. Ridges with an artichoke periodically loosen, delete weeds and water plants with small doses during the droughty period, in cold nights cover with ukryvny material.

At crops by neyarovizirovanny seeds of a plant begin to blossom only for the second year of life, at vegetative reproduction and a rassadny way with crops by yarovizirovanny seeds - in the first. That inflorescences were larger, on a plant leave on two - three tsvetonos, other escapes delete.

Cleaning of inflorescences is begun at the very beginning of blossoming when reveal scales in the central part. Heads cut off with part of a tsvetonos. At the lowered temperature it is possible to keep them four weeks, at a temperature 0 - 1 ° - two - three months.

grades Maykop, Early, Violet and Laonsky are Most known to

.

Salad chicory

Salad chicory - a biannual plant. It is a valuable medical dietary product. Its leaves contain ascorbic acid, carotene, mineral salts, valuable carbohydrate inulin, intibin. The main advantage of salad chicory is that it gives production during the whole winter when there are no other fresh vegetables yet. In the summer it grows up for receiving large root crops for winter landing from which receive kochanchik in the winter.

groups B, C, PP, carotene and other nutrients are vitamin-rich Kochanchiki`s

. Kochanchiki is used in food, from them cook various salads, used for suppression, cooking.

Cultivation. Salad chicory grows on the loamy soil better. Before crops in the soil bring 1,2 buckets of peat and on 1 tablespoon of a nitrofoska and superphosphate on 1 m 2 . The bed is dug over, watered and do across it grooves at distance of 16 - 18 cm, in grooves seeds at distance of 2 - 3 cm from each other sow and close up them on depth of 2 - 2,5 cm In a phase of three - four leaves of a plant thin out, leaving between them distance of 5 - 6 cm

During summer care of salad chicory consists in watering, weeding, loosening.

Cleaning salad chicory begin with

on October 20 - 25. Root crops dig out together with a tops of vegetable, put right there on the place in a small small group a tops of vegetable outside and leave on a bed on of 5 - 6 days. Before a bookmark on storage the tops of vegetable is cut off 3 cm above by root crop necks not to injure a top kidney. Root crops do not clear of the earth, put on storage to the cellar or other rooms where temperature has to be 1 - 2 ° Pages

Approximately at the beginning of November root crops land

in boxes of 50 in size × 50 × 40 cm. Soil is prepared from peat, humus or the cespitose earth with sawdust (1:1), and it is possible to take also one sawdust or a moss etc. In a box fill the moistened soil a layer of 10 - 12 cm For landing select root crops 12 cm long, with a diameter of of 2 - 3 cm In a box in the bridge way land up to 50 pieces of root crops so that their tops were at one level. Then fill up soil to box top - approximately of 18 - 20 cm From above cover a box with dark and damp material and put to the room with a temperature of 12 - 14 ° With on of 10 - 12 days.

the Next 12 days salad chicory grow up

at a temperature of 16 - 18 ° C. The entire period of cultivation in a box of kochanchik from root crops lasts 22 - 24 days, and during this time they grow weight to of 150 - 180 As kochanchik grow in the earth without daylight (in the dark), they have white coloring. Kochanchiki cut off from root crops and store in polyethylene sacks of 15 and more days in the refrigerator at a temperature of 0 - 1 ° Page

of the Grade. do not have Domestic grades of chicory salad yet therefore use foreign grades: To Ekstrem for an early vygonka, the Witloof Danish, Mitado - for the oseena - winter, Tardivo - for late.

From the book “Gold 6 Hundred Parts“