Rus Articles Journal

Child and critical thinking: encourage ``why-asker``!

How to develop critical thinking at children and why it is necessary? Whom do we want to grow up - the inquisitive person with the point of view or the obedient performer? It is necessary to think of it already at preschool age.

From objects by the images

at the age of one and a half years at children begins to develop visually - figurative thinking - with its help problems are solved with real objects. Simply speaking to answer this or that question, the child needs to hold a subject in hand, to see it and to feel.

To to 4 - 5 years, when it is evident - the figurative thinking is already created, it is only enough to children to imagine the necessary subject - to remember its image. Such ability of the solution of tasks in mind arises thanks to the fact that images which the child uses gain the generalized character. That is in them not all features of a subject but only those which matter for the solution of a certain task or the answer to the question posed are displayed. In consciousness of the child there are already schemes, models, he is capable to generalize and analyze information which he obtains from the outside world. So, it is time to help it to develop critical thinking.

the Thinking not simple, but critical

Why is so important to develop at children not just “thinking“, namely “critical thinking“? In what a difference? In modern psychology several treatments of this concept are considered. If to generalize them, then critical thinking is called difficult thought process which begins with obtaining information by the child and comes to an end with adoption of the considered decision and formation of own relation.

We, adults, at this moment distinctly see that at children ability to raise new questions, to develop arguments in protection of the opinion was shown and to draw conclusions. They can already not only interpret, but also analyze information. Critically conceiving child, relying on logic and on opinion of the interlocutor, will be able always to explain why he agrees with it or he does not agree.

Please, do not think that all this is too difficult for preschool children. So can seem only in the theory, but in practice parents can see every day manifestations of critical thinking at the child. Eternal children`s question “why?“ - the most striking example of the developing critical thinking. Kids always want to know the reasons of human acts, the natural phenomena, events which witnesses they are. And if moves the child inquisitiveness, it is impossible to wave away from his questions at all. Ignoring them, it is easy to discourage to knowledge. Important with attention to treat aspiration of the child to learn everything and about everything. Exactly adults can help it to estimate objectively the facts, to draw conclusions from the obtained information and only after it to create the attitude towards her.

needs to be remembered still Here that sometimes game in “why-asker“ is a way to draw to itself attention of parents. If thus the child “gives a signal“: “I lack you!“ - it is necessary to reflect. It is impossible to turn to such “signals“ a deaf ear at all, it is necessary to resolve this issue in time.

we Will give one more example from everyday life. Children are often not agree with parents or with other children. In such situation parents need to ask the child a question: “Why you do not agree?“. If the child can prove the position, so he also asks himself a question: “Why I so consider?“ . And it speaks about a high level of development of critical thinking. If the child does not understand why he drew this or that conclusion, and does not know how to prove the case, parents have to help it. The closest people will be able to construct so communication with the child that he learned to reflect critically on different subjects.

Conceiving or obedient?

that time when very many teachers began to express concern about a poor development of critical thinking at preschool children Came. Unfortunately, thought of it only recently. There was such stereotype earlier: “The obedient child does not argue with seniors“. In many families and educational systems the stereotype is live to this day. Children often should hear:“ Do not argue. Do not ask excess questions. Just do what you are told“. These principles will already very badly be coordinated with modern reality.

It is natural, there is nothing bad in respect for seniors, in polite communication with close people. On the contrary, it is fine tradition which should be kept in a family. But it does not mean at all that it is necessary to deprive of the child of desire to learn truth. Badly the fact that this desire can not arise if to the child not to allow to express and prove the point of view! To us, adults, it is important to learn to divide these things - respect for seniors and natural desire to realize and explain the children`s position with grown wise life experience to parents.

in the majority of new training programs one of the major requirements Now. For successful study in the first class it is already poorly simple to be able to read, write and consider, still it is necessary to solve simple logical problems, to draw conclusions after reading of short texts. Sometimes it is even necessary to argue with the teacher and to prove the case.

That your child was rather ready

to school, begin to develop at it critical thinking as soon as possible.

the Practical advice

Here some councils which will help to develop critical thinking at children:

  1. In statements. From the earliest age it is necessary to train the child to think logically. Try to argue more often at the child, prove the opinion, you teach the child to build phrases on model: “If......“.
  2. Let the child compares objects, finds common features, draws conclusions after reading of fairy tales.
  3. do not accept the answer: “Because so I want!“ or “Because so it is pleasant to me!“ if it is about the argument of the opinion. Ask the child to think and call the real reason. Certainly, you should not force the kid to voice arguments at once. Let at first he will learn to think of them. Help it, leading.
  4. Allow the child to doubt. He expresses in these no confidence to some facts. Means, he will try to prove that it is right, and will want to learn everything about object of dispute. So he learns and will remember a lot of new and interesting.
  5. your child points
  6. to a mistake in your reasonings? Or asks a lot of the specifying questions? That`s wonderful. Means, he is attentive, ready to express the opinion and dreams to know everything. Encourage such talk.
  7. Try on the example and on examples from life to show to the child that at first it is always necessary to obtain full information on an event, and already then to draw conclusions. Show that it is unreasonable to criticize what you know nothing about, it is necessary always to try to judge objectively.
Article is provided to

by a network of the centers of early development “The baby - club“