Rus Articles Journal

The orthodontist about a bite. Sucking of a baby`s dummy and finger: when to disaccustom?

Parents often ask questions at what age it is necessary to disaccustom the child to a pacifier whether sucking of a finger is an addiction and with what consequences long sucking can be connected. Let`s understand together with our expert - the orthodontist.

About reflexes

Food of the newborn, namely receiving milk and its hit in zheludochno - the intestinal path, is carried out by means of two actions: sucking and swallowing. How it occurs? Lacteal channels of a breast of mother are surrounded with soft muscles which are reduced for release of milk. For receiving milk the child does not need to exhaust it from mother`s breast, and it is only necessary to stimulate soft muscles so that, being reduced, they excreted milk. During feeding the baby carries out the small squeezing movements by lips which are instinctive actions. After hit of milk in a mouth the child needs to lower only language that milk leaked further in a throat and a gullet. At this moment language moves ahead before contact with a lower lip.

This sequence of actions determines by

infantile swallowing, so-called infantile type of swallowing at which there is an active reduction of muscles of lips and a circular muscle of a mouth, advance of a tip of language before contact with a lower lip and upward for pressing of a nipple to the sky forward.

Contact of language with a lower lip is so usual for newborns that it is considered rest position. It is often possible to notice that if slightly to pull for the newborn`s lip, then the tip of language moves together with a lip as though it to it is pasted.

And now on - adult

By the time of the birth of a lip of the kid are developed by

well for vigorous sosatelny activity, and the structures located in the depth of a mouth are practically not developed. Eventually the need for strengthening of activity of back parts of language and more difficult movements of pharyngeal structures develops. The Sosatelny reflex usually disappears and there is a consecutive maturing of oral functions: from forward areas to back.

the Principle of maturing of a mouth “in front - back“ is well illustrated by development of the speech. The first said sounds are gubno - lip “m“, “p“, therefore the first words of the newborn are usually connected with a pronunciation of these sounds (“mother“ or “father“). Some there are concordants said by a tip of language - “t“, “d“ a time later. The whistling sounds of “h“ and “shch“, the demanding statements of a tip of language it is close to the sky, appear still later. More exact statement of back part of language is demanded by sounds “to“, ““ and “r“ therefore to 4 - 5 years they can be not accurate.

With growth of the baby activity of the muscles raising the lower jaw in the course of swallowing increases. In process of addition in a diet of the child of semi-fluid and almost firm products he is forced to use language for more difficult actions: for formation of a food lump, its arrangement in the middle of language and its transfer to a throat. The chewing movements of the small child usually represent the movement of the lower jaw sideways when opening, then its return to area of the average line and closing for implementation of contact of teeth with food. To 2 - 2,5 to years this way of infantile chewing is already well developed. In the same time by means of more difficult movements of language in its back part infantile swallowing turns into more difficult process.

the Ripened or adult model of swallowing at some children appears at the age of 3 years, at the majority it is formed completely by 6 years and never the population develops at of 10 - 15% .

the Tasty finger

Practically all modern newborns develop a semblance of a habit of nonfood sucking - sucking big, a forefinger or similar objects in a form. At some sucking of thumbs already in a womb is observed, and the vast majority of children keep this habit till 2 years and longer. This tendency has a cultural basis: in primitive communities the children having bigger access to a maternal breast seldom suck any other objects.

When sosatelny activity stops and the sosatelny reflex fades, the infantile type of swallowing changes on adult at which there is no lip activity. During swallowing on adult type of a lip of the child are completely weakened, language rises to the sky up, the tip of language rests against forward part of the sky behind the top cutters, and teeth are densely closed.

After attenuation of a sosatelny reflex full transition to adult type of swallowing can demand several months. However long preservation of a habit of sucking can even longer keep a habit of making of language (infantile swallowing).

Long sucking of a finger, a pacifier or other objects, and also a habit to lay language between teeth during swallowing and conversation can result

in anomalies of a bite. It is connected with change of muscular balance between pressure upon language teeth from within and action of muscles of lips and cheeks outside. During sucking from within and lack of adequate pressure from cheeks and lips leads the excessive pressure of a finger, a pacifier, language upon teeth to deformation of tooth alignments and change of position of teeth. Cracks between the upper and lower teeth or an excessive inclination of upper teeth can be formed forward.

Degree of shift of teeth depends on that how many hours a day sucking, but not from the size of the put pressure lasts. At children who suck a finger strongly, but with breaks, deformations can not arise while the children sucking a finger for 6 hours a day and more, especially children, sleeping with a finger in a mouth all night long can suffer from serious violation of a bite subsequently.

Though the habit of sucking is a powerful factor of development of violations of a bite, sucking does not create serious problems if this habit is not present in the period of the mixed bite when change of teeth already began. Small shift of dairy cutters is observed at 3 - 4 - summer children who suck a finger, but if to get rid of a habit at this stage, then normal pressure from lips and cheeks quickly returns teeth in their usual situation - there is a so-called self-control. If this habit remains after the beginning of a prorezyvaniye of constant cutters (usually in 6 years), then orthodontic treatment for correction of position of teeth can be required. Certainly, there is no sense to begin such treatment while the sucking habit remains.

of the Recommendation

  1. Surely watch

    the physiological growth and development of zubochelyustny system of the child. Timely and correct development will provide normal functions from an oral cavity: chewing (efficiency of chewing), breath (nasal breath), speech production, esthetic and harmonious development of a facial skeleton.

  2. For children 1 years which did not refuse a pacifier yet are more senior than
  3. , or the children using a pacifier a long time, sleeping with a pacifier in a mouth pick up an orthodontic pacifier. Such pacifier occupies smaller volume and allows language to reach the highest position in an oral cavity.
  4. If refusal of a baby`s dummy does not happen independently, you should not select a baby`s dummy since there can be a habit of sucking of a finger to which it is even more difficult to disaccustom the kid.
  5. needs to Fight against a habit seriously with of 2 - 3 years. for this purpose the preventive orthodontic devices helping to overcome a sosatelny reflex exist.
  6. you Perform regular routine inspections:
    • at the dentist each 3 months from the moment of a prorezyvaniye of 8 teeth (with of 12 - 18 months);
    • at the orthodontist each 6 months from the moment of formation of a full bite of milk teeth (with of 2 - 3 years).