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How the dog - whether sees the world and that dog kisses of

the Beginning

mean

owners of dogs Understand their daily, ordinary behavior? What is actually meant by dog “kisses“? The American professor of psychology, the expert in behavior of animals - about distinctions in perception of the world the person and his pets.

In others skin

to be able to distinguish essential elements of an umvelt an animal - means, in fact, to become the specialist in ticks, dogs, people and so on. Thus it is possible to reduce a gap between the fact that we as it seems to us, know about dogs, and what they are actually.

We can try to acquire umvelt other animal, to be embodied in an animal (remembering the restrictions imposed by our touch system). Surprising business - to spend day, having leveled by growth with a dog. Obnyukhivaniye (even if our noses far from perfect) objects which we face during the day radically changes our ideas of familiar things.

A pay attention to sounds in the room where you are now, - sounds to which you got used and to which usually you do not listen. So, having made some effort, I hear noise of the fan in a corner, buzz of the truck in the distance, illegible voices of the people walking upstairs; under someone the wooden chair creaks; I beat heart; I sglatyvat; the turned page rustles. Be my hearing more sharply, I, perhaps, distinguished a handle scratching on paper in the opposite end of the room, would hear as the flower grows and as insects at me under legs exchange words. Perhaps, other animals distinctly hear these sounds.

Value of things

Different animals differently see objects around themselves. The dog who looks round the room does not consider himself surrounded with things of the person at all - all this objects of his world. Our ideas of what the subject is intended to this or that for, can coincide with dog, and can not coincide. The sense of things is defined by what we with them do (von Ixkuel called it “functional tone“). The dog can be indifferent to chairs, but if to teach her to jump on them, the chair becomes a thing on which sit. Subsequently the dog can independently open that there are also other things intended for sitting: couch, heap of pillows or, for example, knees of the person.

So, we begin to understand in what ideas of the world of dogs and the person are similar and in what they are excellent. For dogs the set of objects of world around is connected with food - much more, than for people. Moreover, they distinguish “functional tones“ which for us do not exist - for example, things on which it is possible to roll about with taste. If we are not children and are not inclined to similar games, then the number of such objects aspires for us to zero. And on the contrary, a huge number of the things possessing for us strictly certain value (forks, knives, hammers, office buttons, fans, hours and so on), have for dogs any (or almost any) no sense.

So, for a dog the hammer does not exist. It means nothing to it, at least, while it is not connected with another, significant, object (for example, the owner uses it; on it the nice dog living below down the street urinated; it has a wooden handle which can be gnawed).

When of an umvelta a dog and the person face, as a rule, people do not understand what is done by their pets. For example, the person absolutely seriously declares as if his dog knows: on a bed she has nothing to do. The person can even buy a special dog stove bench and order to a dog to go to lay down there. Usually the dog will obey. The person feels satisfied. Still, the next step to mutual understanding is taken.

But whether so it? Many times, coming back home, I found crumpled, still and understood a warm bed that I there just lay or my dog who is joyfully welcoming me on a threshold or a certain unknown invisible newcomer. We without effort formulate: the bed is intended for the person, a dog stove bench - for a dog. A human bed - the vacation spot, on it there can be expensive bed linen and various pillows. Will not come to our mind to take seat on a dog stove bench which cost us (rather) cheap and is covered with izzhevanny toys.

A that about a dog? She does not see a big difference between the and our beds, however ours is much more attractive. The bed smells of the person, and a dog stove bench - what appeared near at hand at the master. The bed is a place where we spend some time; there, sometimes, crumbs are scattered and the clothes roll. Certainly, the dog will prefer our bed to the stove bench! She does not know why we perceive this place somehow differently. Of course, the dog can remember that the human bed represents something special, - if it is regular to abuse him for the fact that it on it lies. But then he will understand not a difference between the stove bench and our bed, and more likely a difference between places where it can and cannot freely lie.

In the dog world the bed does not possess “functional tone“. Dogs sleep where can, but not where we would like it. For rest they choose places where it is possible to settle with comfort where not hot and not cold, there are relatives and it is safe. Almost any plain surface in the house meets these requirements. Equip some corner according to dog tastes - and your pet will probably consider it as not less desired, than a bed.

Dog “kisses“

Kisses for the Pumpernickel are a way of establishment of contact; so to speak, the hand given me.

the Pumpernickel licks to me the person when I, having come back home, bend to caress it. She licks my hand to wake when I begin to doze in a chair. She carefully licks my legs, sweaty after jog. Sitting next, the Pumpernickel presses my hand a forepaw, unclenches a nose a fist and licks a palm. I am excited.

often I hear

Ya that owners of dogs calibrate love of the pets with “kisses“ with which dogs present them after return home, be it dribbling “kisses“ in a face or thoughtful “polishing“ of a hand language.

Ya I view kisses the Pumpernickel as an attachment sign.“ Attachment“ and “love“ is not recent inventions of our society considering dogs as little people on whom it is necessary to put in bad weather to indulge trips to the resort and to dress up for Halloween. Charles Darwin living long before establishment of “a dog day nursery“ (who, I am sure, did not dress the puppy in a suit of the goblin or witch), wrote about dog “kisses“, without doubting their value. Dogs, according to Darwin, show a surprising way the attachment, namely - lick hands or a face of the owner. Whether Darwin was right? Dog “kisses“ to me seem manifestation of love, but what the dog thinks of it?

U me for you bad news. Supervision over wolves, coyotes, foxes showed: puppies lick a muzzle of mother who came back from hunting and demand that it srygnut the semi-digested food. Licking around a mouth, probably, stimulates mother to it. As far as the Pumpernickel it is probably disappointed that I never shared with it the eaten rabbit!

Nevertheless, to dogs it is pleasant to lick our faces. Their flavoring receptors distinguish salty and sweet, bitter and sour, and even taste of a yumama (something between mushrooms and sea cabbage) felt in a sodium glutamate. Dogs feel sweet taste a little differently, than we (at us salt strengthens feeling of sweet).

especially it is a lot of

of “Sweet“ receptors at dogs though, for example, sucrose and fructose act on them stronger, than glucose. Has to be, at omnivorous dogs this ability to distinguish mature and unripe plants and fruits developed. It is curious that even pure salt does not stimulate so-called “salty“ receptors of language and the sky of dogs as it happens at people. But it is not necessary to puzzle long over behavior the Pumpernickel to understand: her “kisses“ are often connected with the fact that recently I at it in the eyes absorbed fair quantity of food.

A now - good news: eventually the licking having pragmatical character (what we call dog “kisses“) turned into ritual of a greeting. In other words, it serves not only way to elicit food, but also to greet. Dogs, and also wolves lick each other muzzles to congratulate on return and to determine by a smell where and why the relative left. Mothers not only wash puppies, licking them, - having returned after short separation, they give them several fast “kisses“. The young or shy dog can lick a muzzle of a Canis terrible Major to umilostivit him. Familiar dogs can exchange grandly “kisses“, going on a lead.

also serves

“Kiss“ in the way to make sure (by means of a smell) that the dog who is torn towards really familiar. And, as welcome “kisses“ often are followed by wagging of a tail, the mouth opened from delight and the general joyful excitement, will not be big stretch to tell that the licking is a way to express delight on the fact that you came back home.

From the book “Dog from a Nose to a Tail“