The child and the museum - an instruction for parents. What to tell in what to play
How to entice the child in the museum how to acquaint him with the best pictures and sculptures how to teach him to follow rules - and not to discourage at the same time to visit the temple of arts regularly? Natalya Gomberg, the research associate of the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, the teacher of children`s groups and teenage Club of Young Art critics of the Pushkin museum tells about it 7e.
- With what age needs to be begun?
- If to speak about the art museums, then years from four - five. Yes, Europeans like to bring absolutely small children, but then it has to be some interactive museum. For the child at the age of the researcher (of 1 year to three) when he has to feel everything, to climb on everything - not each museum will approach. With
the best that can be made with the child in the museum - to show it that there it is possible to spend time interestingly. That this not only that place where it is impossible to run and rustle. If we absolutely at small age impart thought that the museum is cool, the child gets used to it. There is a playground - there it is possible to jump, here the circus - there should be sat and looked, eaten the museum - there it is impossible to run and shout, but it is possible to look. And these entertainments become on one line.
Grudges that our big museums are not ready to arrange the space for children yet. The Moscow museums not too family friendly (“focused on a family“) - as well as the majority Russian in general.
- And it often frightens off children...
- Of course, the child can think that if in the museum both that is impossible, and it is impossible, then why me mother in general here brought? Quite reasonable reflection - besides if the inspector makes the strict remark. But on the other hand, if to position a visit of the museum as visit of the special, amazing place where governed therefore special where, though something and cannot be done, but, on the contrary, it is possible to see, say, in Tretyakov gallery - fairy tale characters. The Pushkin museum can be given to the child not as the big building with booming halls and as a time machine which transfers all the time to the different countries and eras.
of of the Photo: Evgenia Ponomarenko
, How many angels in the Pushkin museum?
- How to carry away the child in the museum what to show it first of all?
can Interest the child in travel - already enough. It is possible to think up many other courses: let`s tell, time we decide to get acquainted with inhabitants of the museum, in this hall we look for portraits. In - the first, we learn that such portrait, in - the second, we can quite talk why there is no portrait of an angel, and in - the third if before any portrait stops and to talk: “And it who? And what it does? And of what he thinks?“, it gives food for different reflections and teaches the child to talk to a work of art.
We, adults, often go on the museums so: we come into the hall, it big, and it is difficult to be focused. And here we so float on halls - and we leave with feeling that visited the pleasant place. And the child should be focused! Having appeared in the hall of Flemish painting and having looked at girls in dresses, it is possible to talk about how the fashion changed: what collar inconvenient, and what sewing magnificent. “Really everything so changed? And we will go we will look to other hall - what dresses in that country carried?“ To look for some animals on speed - who will find more.can primitively seem to
For some adults: as it so, we came to be educated, and here doggies on speed to consider. But we put feeling in the earliest childhood that the museum can be fascinating: at the earliest age start up it will be the space for game, only by special rules, such “museum hide-and-seek“.
For school students subject conversation will go more: “travel“ over one country, or acquaintance to the same character - we will tell, the mythical hero - in different types and forms.
- And if the child descended 2 times in the museum, and then speaks:“ It was pleasant to me, but I do not want any more“?
- In - the first, it is possible to replace the museum. It is possible to think up additional incentive. But I in general would postpone campaigns better. Here occupations take place once a month in circles of the Pushkin museum - and it is rather regular for the small child. I hardly represent also the adult who goes to the museum more often than time - two in a month.
Ya thought out to the nephews such courses: here, to the museum of 100 years it was executed, we will go, a gold coin to this honor there. Sometimes we are going to do a dress to a doll, it has to be the most beautiful and magic - we will go we will look for ideas for dresses. We read myths Greek - and we will go we will get acquainted with Zeus?
Should follow the child`s initiative. Children sometimes on utter nonsense show and ask: and it that? If the child asked, it is necessary to answer, or perhaps even to think out the answer directly together with the child.to
to Small children need fairy tales: they have a requirement and a habit to listen to stories. Any history, any communication between pictures will be good. Think up a story about relationship of portraits - as they at each other look, and cannot leave frames - all this recovers. The museum has to be live, it should not be the place where we came “to be formed“ - it is awful.
the Museum has to be the place where it is interesting - and where we spend there so much time how many the child wants - and still slightly - slightly.
- “Please, suffer, now we will look through and we will go“?- Is not present
, time we suffer, it turns out that now is bad, it is necessary to wait - and it will become good. But almost any child will not refuse if mother wants to show him the very best favourite picture.
- whether Can bribe the child - after the museum we will go to cafe?
- If the child never in life was in the museum, he is not obliged to want there. But if we managed to make this first time pleasant, not intense, fascinating, and then still to eat cake... Yes, cake all the same will become the best reminiscence. But the child will remember that to cake there was something else. If to build a visit of the museum not by the principle of a carrot and stick and as a logical chain, it will be good.than
Game with a prize - it is better, than study with a praise.
of of the Photo: Evgenia Ponomarenko
“Manet is people, and Monet is spots“
- What books can help parents?
- Unfortunately, the books translated to Russian for the aid to parents very little. There are big books of Petersburg publishing house “Arka“ at the Hermitage, now and in the Pushkin museum let out a line of books - the truth, very limited:“ How to watch a sculpture“ is not absolutely for kids, for is more senior, “How to make an engraving“ is more applied. There was a fine book “What tell the Greek vases about“.
At an entrance to Louvre the whole separate stall with the most different children`s books, games, a coloring - from the Middle Ages in Klyuni`s museum to impressionists of the museum D`Orsay is. In a nu - York Metropolitan Museum of Art there is even a special free Family Map card with drawings, without speaking about the whole series of guides - that the child felt - here waited for it.
what at us is absent as a class - except the game “Memori“ with pictures of the Russian artists released by Tretyakov gallery. Why? It is unclear.
When in the Pushkin museum there took place the Distance exhibition, the teenagers who are engaged in our Club of the young art critic helped to conduct sociological survey. Children went in the long turn with forms and asked:“ Whether you in the museum wanted to see children`s souvenir products? How many would be ready to pay for it?“. It is clear, that those who stand on the Distance exhibition not the most representative selection, but all - came to it not only regular customers of the museum. As a result we understood that to sell something children`s, okolomuzeyny rubles for three hundred it is quite possible. And, above all, for parents there comes such fine moment when they play with children such game - and then the child, having come to the museum, shows on a picture and speaks:“ Mother, same Claude Monet“. The kid studies, playing - and gradually remembers that “Manet is people, and Monet is spots“ as it is told in the ironical “Encyclopedia of art“ that goes on social networks now.
the Museum and others
- They say that the children who are growing up on gadgets and abundance of different pictures and entertainments are more absent-minded - and them it is heavier to carry away. How to parents and the museum to compete with gadgets, bright games, simple plots?
- Yes, it is valid children more scattered. Yes, they concentrate worse, speak worse. For the last years five one companies Apple presented to children the excess number of entertainments. When I come to the teenage group and all of them sit, having buried in the phones - iPads, I speak:“ So, we hand over the weapon“. Laugh - but hand over. Modern children need it too, it is impossible to forbid completely if from there periodically to get them. But it has to be clear to them why they were got from there.But here also parents are sometimes guilty
. I will tell one very bright impression. The Berlin Pergamon - the museum (Pergamonmuseum) which is very advanced - everything is thought over, there are programs for children, it is possible to go with carriages. There is a family: the father - mother and boys - twins. Parents with the great pleasure and interest look around, and each child in hands has
- Therefore in the Jewish museum which recently opened in Moscow thought up the Children`s center - there it is possible to leave the child to walk on the museum?
- Yes, in the museums game rooms have to be strong>: it is normal, the child does not maintain so much how many the adult. There has to be a place where it is possible to leave the child - but not just game and that he spent time with advantage there. And I believe that even, generally, the museum can think up the most difficult / gloomy / clever / serious as to become it interesting to the child.
How to make a visit of the museum pleasant and useful
Councils of Francoisa of Barbe - Gall - the famous French art critic, the teacher of School of Louvre, the head of CORETA association (“How to watch a picture“).
If you want to visit the museum, an exhibition or gallery, having combined business with pleasure, does not prevent to acquire several simple rules - so simple that we usually forget about them.
you do not go to the museum in rainy days
By tradition is considered that rainy weather best of all is suitable for the museum. Certainly, if the child has vacation and with might and main the sun shines, it is more natural to stay on air, and in any way not to stick out in the museum. This ordinary opinion is quite misleading. It assumes that go to the museum only when there is nothing to be engaged more. Meanwhile the visit of the museum has to be the conscious choice, a holiday, but not a way to kill time. By the way, in a sunny day it is much more pleasant to look at pictures, than in cloudy. And to stand in a queue in clothes with wet jackets and umbrellas - quite sad occupation. Of course, for the real fan of art similar reasons of a role do not play, but all this is capable to poison the first children`s impressions.
Stop on the museum to which it is not too far
Being chosen with children somewhere, we are going to listen to moaning in advance: “Far still?“, “Well when we at last will come?“ . If the planned museum it is far from the house and it is possible to reach only on foot there, it is better to refuse this invention. While you go, the child will be tired - and will finally be upset, having learned, as on the museum it is necessary to go and go still. Let`s assume, you safely covered the distance - and saw the long turn before an entrance. Here it is necessary either to stock up with patience, or to come in other day. But so far as you stood turn and got inside, prior to survey bring together the child in museum cafeteria and let`s it be supported a little: the mood at it will be lightened at once.
do not tighten stay in the museum, do not try to see everything
Any visit of the museum - not very well in what - serious loading for the child. It will have to go without hurrying, not to rustle, not to touch anything - all this hardly. Small children in general are inclined to consider museum halls as a desired scope where it is possible to run about thoroughly. From the child the known concentration, concentration of attention which for certain will dissipate if you with it stay before a picture longer will be required, than it is necessary. It is one thousand times more useful to spend five minutes before one work, than within an hour to watch “on tops“ everything. You remember: in half an hour the child most likely will be sated with what was seen; than it is younger, those need to allow less time for stay in the museum. It is better to come again in other day.Explain
to the child how to behave in the museumthe Basic rules of behavior are uniform
everywhere. It is impossible to touch pictures and to approach them too close; it is forbidden to photograph with flash. These rules can seem to children too strict. Explain that all this is thought up in order that painting remained as long as possible. There are pictures to which it is a lot of centuries; they endured wars, the fires, floods, it is easy to damage them - they very fragile and demand the care. If to touch them, even with clean hands, it is possible to scratch them or to bring invisible harmful microorganisms on a surface. And uncountable flashlights are capable “to burn“ and decolour a paint layer over time. Therefore some museums simply forbid visitors to carry by with themselves cameras.Deliver to
yourself to the place of your child, “fall“ to his level
the Museum weighing of pictures is calculated on the level of eyes of the adult. Try to sit down and look at a picture from below - you are convinced that the child, with his small growth, sees not absolutely the same that you. Do not forget about it is then you will understand why the child was interested in some detail, in your opinion minor. Perhaps, something escaped from your attention just appeared at it directly before eyes.
Use plans, read plates
In the majority of the museums to visitors detailed plans of an exposition are offered. Explain to the child how to use the plan, and he with pleasure will choose a route. To children will be more senior interesting to learn by what principle of a picture take place in halls - on chronological or on thematic. In some halls painting of one concrete country or works of a certain artist can be presented, and in others works of different eras and different masters can hang together. Draw attention of the child to plates near pictures, help to read correctly their names, names of artists and date, explain the simplest designations of equipment (“a canvas, oil“ or “a tree, oil“).
be not afraid to come back to familiar pictures
If the picture was pleasant, the child will want to see it again: all children adore listening to favourite fairy tales on hundred times or to watch favourite movies. At the initial stage you should repeat patiently the same way, but it is not waste of time, but very important ritual. The fallen in love picture will stir interest in others, and with your active help the child will understand that every time, looking at the same picture, it is possible to open in it for itself something new.
Leaving the museum, buy cards with reproductions
Plan time so, that it was finally possible to choose and buy cards. Cards - fine and easy souvenirs; it is possible to decorate with them walls in the nursery or to use as bookmarks for books. The child will collect them, sometimes to scatter, lose, but when finds again, will be delighted to them as the old acquaintance. In the beginning it will be just beautiful pictures which are so cheerful for touching in a museum booth, but then these tiny reproductions will help to keep and recover early children`s impressions.
do not forget to come into cafe
the Visit of the museum will not be full if you did not come into cafe. For the child it is like cinema without popcorn or without ice cream. If in the museum there is no cafeteria, come where - nibud nearby. The child is younger, the it is more important to arrange him this small holiday.
From Francoisa`s book of Barbe - Gall “How to tell with children about art“ (Arka publishing house)