Who defined pedagogical thinking of the XX century? Maria Montessori ofOn the eve of academic year was born one of the most great teachers of the XX century - Maria Montessori. On August 31, 1870 in the Italian town of Kyarovalla the girl whose name according to the decision of UNESCO was included many years later in the short list of four teachers who defined pedagogical thinking of last century was born. happened to study and work with Montessori`s
in those days when as the main destiny of the woman considered the house and a family. The big role lives was played by mother who installed in it belief that the person himself can choose the destiny. Maria had mathematical abilities, but did not allow to attend technical school to girls. Despite obstacles, with assistance of parents she achieved the and received the certificate.
After that she decided to become the children`s doctor, and it was too courageous call to society. This decision was considered not just strange, and even men could only be a certain perversion - doctors. Even the father did not approve its choice, and they ceased to communicate. But again - Maria`s commitment helped it to enter the medical university and to successfully graduate from it. But what efforts it costed it! Many fellow students openly ignored it, did not talk, did not leave the place in audience. Was considered inadmissible that she studied in the anatomic hall where there were corpses of naked people. She had to practice at night.
It was so heavy that the girl even wanted to give up study. But once, having incidentally seen the child playing on the street, on it as though the inspiration condescended: she felt the mission. To pay university, it worked with mentally retarded children who were thrown by parents. During this work it created the main principles of the future pedagogical technique. The father accepted the daughter again only after when she was recognized as the first woman - the doctor in Italy.
Maria devoted many years to psychiatry. In work with mentally retarded children it achieved considerable results. Contrary to a popular belief, she considered that not all children are lost for society and it is necessary to make every effort to adapt them to life in society. Her many pupils coped with study at the same level, as well as full-fledged children, and some it is even better.
In 1907 it opened school for children which called Children`s home. All situation, training and education were constructed on Montessori`s principles which the teacher put about a basis of the pedagogical system. In the beginning these principles were used in work with mentally retarded children and pedagogical neglect. But after a while they began to be applied also in work with healthy children.
Recognition and success accompanied it already during lifetime. Maria acted with lectures in the different countries much. Teachers came to adopt experience, opened courses and kindergartens. Lev Tolstoy`s daughter Tatyana Sukhotina - Thick visited Children`s home and saw here a lot of the realized ideas of the father. The Russian teacher Yulia Fausek opened in Russia the first kindergarten - Montessori. In Soviet period an attempt of transition of kindergartens to new educational system was made. But, as well as in other spheres, this initiative was waited by failure - Stalin did not like the innovative principles of training. A technique declared reactionary and harmful. The last kindergarten based Fausek was closed in 1930.
Montessori devoted all the life to other people`s children, and could not bring up the child. With the beloved, the doctor Giuseppe Montessano, they agreed that everyone has to be realized in the professional sphere therefore will live without official registration. Under laws of that time, the married woman had to leave work. In 26 years she became pregnant, but the child`s birth out of marriage meant public scandal. Moreover, Giuseppe`s mother was categorically against this union, and the child was born illegitimate. This circumstance could damage strongly it to work and the child, and the son had to be sent to the village where that was brought up in a farmer family. Now it is possible to condemn her for this act, but in those days laws of society were severe. In spite of the fact that it constantly broke them, here it was necessary to recede.
She sometimes visited the son, but did not tell him the truth. But when the boy grew up, declared that he knows that she is his mother and asked to take away to himself. The inner circle knew about her personal tragedy, but it had to call the son the nephew for a long time. Mario became the furious adherent of pedagogics and continued business of the mother until the end of life. In 1929 they based the International Montessori Assotsiation who works still.
The strong blow waited for it when the husband declared that he leaves a family and marries other woman. She could not forgive him. Completely plunged into work and study, having mastered in addition anthropology and psychology. One more blow - death of mother. The strong woman did not show the feelings, but did not eat three days, and carried black clothes twenty years.
Maria conducted vigorous public work, went on the world much, met the famous people, fought for the rights of women, during world wars made pacifistic slogans. Mussolini in the first years of the power saw a way of development of new society in its pedagogical principles. Schools began to open in large quantities. But cooperation lasted not for long. The technique assumed that children have to be raised by free and have own opinion. And fascist regime of Mussolini needed obedient society. In 1931 Maria hastily left the country and any more never returned home. And the dictator ordered to close all schools of Montessori that was made within a month.
The teacher lived in England, Holland, but after coming to power of Hitler of her followers began to pursue, to close schools, and to burn books. Together with the son it departed to India. For that time of 90% of inhabitants of the British colony were illiterate. She lived in India seven years, was constantly busy with opening of new schools and training of teachers.
After the end of World War II it had an opportunity to return to Amsterdam. For the rest of the natural she was engaged in pedagogical activity, lecturing, scientific work. Her house became the world center of education. Three times it was nominated for Nobel Peace Prize.
Siegmund Freud spoke: “Where Montessori, I am not necessary“. Presently around the world 8 thousand schools - Montessori and 14 thousand schools where her methods are applied work. Maria spoke: “Children for me - an inexhaustible source of hope“.