Rus Articles Journal

Pregnancy on weeks: how we change - and the child of

you will become parents soon? Congratulations! Pregnancy - one of the most remarkable periods in the woman`s life. And it is always so interesting what occurs in a uterus as your child what changes are characteristic of a female organism grows. About all this is the gynecologist, the candidate of medical sciences Elena Nesyaeva.

we Will begin

one after another. First of all, I want to remind that distinguish the true term of pregnancy - of day of conception - and obstetric which is counted of the first day of the last periods. That is obstetric term is more true for 2 weeks. We will speak about obstetric term. It is justified, the ovum begins to ripen in the woman`s organism with arrival of the next periods.

So, from the beginning of a menstrual cycle in an ovary the ovum begins to ripen. Approximately in 2 weeks after the beginning of periods there is an ovulation - a rupture of a mature follicle. The ovum leaves in an abdominal cavity, and then gets into a uterine tube. Exactly here it has to meet “soulmate“ - a spermatozoon. At good combination of circumstances there is a fertilization - merge of man`s and female gametes. The zygote - the first section of future child is as a result formed. Active division of a zygote begins, it gradually moves ahead on a pipe towards a uterus cavity. By the end of third day she already has about 32 cages and on appearance reminds mulberry berry (it is visible, of course, only under a microscope).

By the end of the first week of existence in an organism of future kid already of 250 cages, this education reminds a small ball with a cavity inside and is called blastotsisty (fetal egg). Right now process of connection of future child with mother`s organism - implantation begins. By means of enzymes in an endometriya (a mucous cavity of a uterus) deepening where gets a blastotsist is formed, and cages an endometriya are closed over it. Implantation came to the end.

blastotsist continue by

of the Cage the division, the germ and extra germinal educations is formed: horion - future placenta, amnion - subsequently it will turn into a fetal bubble, a zheltochny bag - temporary education due to which the kid will eat until it completely is created matochno - a placentary blood-groove.

the term of the next periods Comes nearer, you know nothing about the new situation yet, and, nevertheless, to future kid 4 weeks! A germ - now rightfully we can call it an embryo - the disk consisting of several layers of cages which will develop in bodies and fabrics of a human body subsequently looks as flat cyanotic color.

If the periods did not arrive on time

, it is possible to make the test for pregnancy or to take a blood test for definition in - HG - the hormone produced by cages of fetal egg.

So, the most responsible period - embryonic begins

. Right now there is a formation of all bodies necessary for human life. It will last till 12 weeks. Developments during this period are very intensive, the embryo is very sensitive to various damaging factors, try not to do much harm to your kid.

Begin to be formed by

warmly - vascular, respiratory, nervous systems, bodies zheludochno - an intestinal path, internal, and then genitalia, bones, muscles, skin, endocrine glands.


To 6 - y practically created to week heart, at ultrasonic research it is already possible to record heartbeat, there is laying of gonads (ovaries or testicles), rudiments of hands and legs appear. In addition the embryo has a tail which will undergo the return development to 10 - y week of pregnancy. And length of the kid on this term of pregnancy - of 4 - 6 mm.

On 8 - y to week at an embryo the head and pelvic ends accurately appear, it is possible to distinguish a back and a stomach, he makes the active movements, and its length from the head to a tailbone - 10 mm. It is a little more, and on 9 - y to week the kid will gain the very first gram!


On 12 - y week - the term of the third not come periods - the embryo reminds the little man. It created all internals, hands and legs with fingers, there are even auricles and genitalia, rudiments of milk teeth. Only proportions at it still ridiculous: the size of the head is approximately equal to the trunk size. It weighs near of 13 - 14 grams, and in length 9 cm reach.

Here 1 trimester also ended with

. During this time the mass of changes happened to the woman`s organism. Under the influence of the hormones supporting pregnancy nagrubat mammary glands, hypodermic fatty cellulose is redistributed: without change of weight of the woman note increase in volume of hips and a stomach. Pigmentation of okolososkovy circles (areola), vulvar lips amplifies, there is a vertical strip from a navel to a pubis. And what is costed by early toxicosis with his nausea and vomiting! And sharp differences of mood can prevent normal existence.

In the second trimester further growth and development of a fruit happens - quite so your kid is called now. I want to remind that it is in a cavity of the uterus covered by an amniotic cover and it is surrounded with amniotic waters. With mother`s organism the fruit is connected to the help of an umbilical cord and placenta through which receives the nutrients and oxygen necessary for the development. Amniotic waters are produced by a placenta and cages of a fetal bubble. Important value has activity of a bladder of a fruit. Preparing for life out of a womb, the fruit swallows waters, and they, in turn, stimulate activity of intestines and promote development first-born a calla - meconium. Amniotic waters carry out also protective function - protect the kid from action of external environment.

During all second trimester the fruit actively moves to uterus cavities. Approximately from 18 weeks the woman begins to catch the movements of the child. Now it is possible even to communicate with it: the organ of hearing is already created and perceives all sounds reaching from our world.

By 20 weeks the kid, besides all bodies, necessary for further life, has nails, eyebrows, pushkovy hair, on skin syrovidny greasing appears. It weighs about 300 grams, and in length reaches 25 cm. The uterus also grows together with it. The bottom of a uterus can already be groped at the level of a navel.

the fruit gathers

By 24 weeks as much again and 600 grams, its length - about 30 cm weigh already. Approximately from this term your house can feel stir of the kid, having laid a hand to a stomach.

Here also ended with

with 2 - y a trimester. What happened to a female organism? In - the first, due to accession matochno - a placentary blood-groove and increase in volume of the circulating blood (approximately on a floor - liter) load of heart increased. You noticed that it becomes more difficult to perform habitual work, perhaps, short wind after physical activity develops. If it does not pass in rest, tell about it to the doctor. In - the second, the increased uterus also does not add comfort. Besides that it became inconvenient to sleep, you “grew up“ from habitual clothes.

also other not most pleasant symptoms Appeared. The growing uterus squeezes veins on which flows blood from the lower extremities and pelvic bodies. Vascular drawing standing amplifies, veins extend - means, time to carry special medical compression jersey (golfs, stockings, panty hoses) came, consultation of the specialist in a disease of veins - the phlebologist can be required. For the same reason many women have gemorroidalny knots. In - the third, from - for the hormones produced in a large number weakening muscles (first of all, a uterus) intestines begin to knock - most of pregnant women suffer from locks.

In the third trimester all above-stated symptoms will progress. There can be heartburn (the uterus already presses on a stomach!) from - for shifts of the center of gravity gait changes, there are back pains. And mammary glands already prepare for a lactation: they produce colostrum.

In 28 weeks of pregnancy the kid absolutely “big“: slightly more than a kilogram, in length - already about 35 cm weighs. At boys testicles gradually begin to go down from an abdominal cavity in a scrotum. The child born on this term at very careful nursing already has chance of a survival.

Further the kid actively gains weight, it has hypodermic fatty cellulose, skin gains pink color (earlier it was brightly - red of - for the translucent vessels).

To 33 - 34 to weeks in lungs of a fruit there is a surfactant - the substance helping at breath. So if the kid suddenly will be born before term, he will begin to breathe independently, and the help of resuscitators can not be required.

the fruit reaches

In 36 weeks of pregnancy in length of 45 cm, weight fluctuates within 2300 - 2600 in dependences on external and hereditary factors. To this term active movements in a uterus come to an end - the limited space allows to move only with hands and legs. The child holds the final position - prelying (ideally - the head down).

you can independently calculate the approximate weight of the child: for this purpose the stomach circle (in cm) needs to be increased by height of standing of a bottom of a uterus (in cm) - it the distance is measured from a pubis to the highest point of a bottom of a uterus. For example, if cm OZh=88, and cm VDM=35, then estimated weight of a fruit - 88 × 35=3080 grams.

Ahead childbirth. I hope, you were prepared for them, perhaps, completed courses of young parents. Pregnancy from 37 to 42 weeks is considered full-term. When the kid is born, depends on hereditary predisposition (take an interest at the mothers on what term they gave birth) and the mass of other factors.

Inspection during pregnancy

the Word “pregnancy“ - from the word “burden“. Pregnancy - considerable load of all organism of the woman. Therefore if the pregnancy planned, try to cure the chronic diseases previously. If you did not wait for pregnancy approach, but, nevertheless, it was desired, as soon as possible see doctors. You are examined, will pick up treatment and will make all necessary recommendations for further incubation of pregnancy.

If you are healthy

, just it will be necessary to make tests.

  1. the Analysis on syphilis, HIV - an infection, hepatitises B and C. The first time this test is made at the first visit of a maternity welfare unit. It is necessary to repeat 1 time in 3 months (for all pregnancy - 3 times).
  2. should make the General blood test monthly. The doctor will be interested in the hemoglobin level, quantity of leukocytes, platelets, SOE.
  3. Biochemical blood test is also made once a month. On it it is possible to judge how internals function, first of all a liver and kidneys.
  4. the General analysis of urine in the first and second trimesters is given once a month, then 1 time in 2 weeks, and after 36 weeks - weekly.
  5. the Analysis for definition of a blood type and a Rhesus factor - a factor. Is given once. However if you have a Rhesus factor - negative blood, and at the husband - positive, it is necessary to define quantity a Rhesus factor - antibodies in blood monthly, if necessary - is more often. It is very important for identification a Rhesus factor - the conflict between organisms of mother and a fruit.
  6. Koagulogramm`s
  7. . Changes in the curtailing system of blood are defined monthly. It is very important, blood of mother provides the kid with food.
  8. the Analysis on diseases, sexually transmitted (hlamidiya, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, a viral infection), is given either before pregnancy, or in early terms. If necessary, for example, if there are symptoms of a pre-natal infection, tests should be made repeatedly.
  9. of ultrasonography at uncomplicated pregnancy spends in 12, by 20 - 24 also 36 weeks. According to indications this research can be conducted more often as it does not render negative effect on mother and a fruit.
  10. In the term of pregnancy 16 - 20 needs to make weeks the test on possible malformations of a fruit - to determine in blood level an alpha - a fetoproteina, a horionichesky gonadotrophin and not conjugated estriol.
  11. to
  12. After 34 weeks of pregnancy of 1 times in 2 weeks showed carrying out a kardiotokografiya (KTG) for an assessment of a pre-natal condition of a fruit.
  13. Pregnant women without fail look round the therapist, the oculist, the ENT SPECIALIST - the doctor, the stomatologist.
  14. Need of carrying out other researches is discussed by
  15. individually with the doctor conducting pregnancy.