Rus Articles Journal

Dysgraphia: when the child writes with errors of

When oral speech suffers - here everything clearly, the logopedist is required. When written language suffers - it is required... what? Severe punishment for lack of diligence? Or “it is necessary just to learn better“ how liberally adjusted parents speak?

Sometimes - “it is better for em to teach

“. And sometimes - and to learn, and slightly - slightly to treat. And in general it is necessary to address the logopedist (yes, and with written language too) that he understood whether the fast logopedic help is necessary. Some parents very much are surprised when they at school advise them to be checked at the logopedist. And are surprised even more when the logopedist advises to work. And at all not to use a belt and other medieval ways of impact on the personality. Still the logopedist tells the word - a dysgraphia that means disorder of written language.


On what signs can guess what the child has a dysgraphia? First of all - if it makes mistakes by the letter... so to say, strange. They are not connected with violation of grammatical rules. Under these mistakes it is impossible to pick up rules. Mistakes happen in absolutely innocent words which writing does not allow an ambiguity.

Instead of “house“ is written by “Don“ or “volume“, instead of “for“ writes “dyal“, instead of “cat“ - “who“, instead of “came“ - “prisyol“, “squirrel“ turns in “blka“ and so on. The child can not finish words, insert excess letters or pass them.

One boy of 11 years wrote

to inspection time: “The girl hid vdublo“. To it dictated the phrase:“ The little squirrel hid in a hollow“. As supposedly we write pretexts, the sufferer answered a question correctly - “separately“. The rule knows, and into practice cannot put it.

A this child not bad, not silly, it is very nice. It is simply heavy to it to write. Only special exercises and self-confidence will be able to help.

It is frequent at disgrafik very bad handwriting - small or very large, illegible. It is heavy to child to observe a line, words come around on fields, at each other, slip from a line or suddenly the word free birds fly up over it. Also young disgrafik do not finish the termination. Can specularly write, overturning letters, can not add separate elements of a letter or add superfluous.

When the child only learns to write

, it still can have such strange mistakes at the very beginning of training, but they quickly come to naught. And disgrafik very slowly masters the competent letter. The feeling is created that it is uncomfortable to it to write, he does not like to do it. And this is true. Often it seems to the school student terrible the volume of what should be learned, read, written. And when also abuse for failures, hands absolutely fall.

... and treatment

is better not to try to cope with all problems at once. It is necessary to choose one - and to concentrate on it. For example, the child would confuse - p, d - t, but also confuses pretexts to prefixes. If at once to undertake everything - the volume of work can frighten. And here if to try to cope only with - p, and then to pay attention of the schoolboy that here, say, mistakes - there was less, it is possible to wake enthusiasm. Further fight for general literacy will go much more cheerfully.

the Logopedist in policlinic will be able at the ¬ temporary visit (in three years, in five years and before the school) to define whether there are no logopedic problems which will halloo then a dysgraphia, if necessary will advise special occupations. The neuropsychologist and the neuropathologist can join the logopedist.

it is necessary to see frequent

on reception to me very sad children. They screw up the face when they suggest to write them a dictation, admit at once that they “badly study“. Then, to encourage them, I begin to remember different famous people who were not on friendly terms with the letter and reading too. Perhaps, it will not be interesting to modern child to learn that Sergey Rachmaninov, Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, most likely, too were disgrafika, but, I think, almost any boy will be touched by information that great Neo, the winner of terrible agents Smitov from “Matrix“, too hardly coped in the childhood with letters and words. Well rather actor Keanu Reeves. I usually tell girls about Agatha Christie. In spite of the fact that the creator Poirot and Ms. Marple studied badly and wrote with mistakes, she became the famous writer. The main thing - to believe in itself.

It is short about the main thing

the Dysgraphia is the specific and permanent violation of process of the letter caused by aberrations in activity of those analyzers and mental processes which provide the letter.

Violation occurs both at children, and at adults. Children have a defeat or an underdevelopment of the relevant departments of bark is most often connected with pathology of pregnancy or childbirth at mother, injuries.

Symptoms: the specific and repeating mistakes on the letter which are not connected with ignorance of grammatical rules. Feature of these mistakes consists in the following: they are allowed where writing of words does not cause, apparently, any difficulties.

Five types of a dysgraphia

1. Artikulyatorno - an acoustic form of a dysgraphia

the Child writes

as he hears. If by the school period all sounds are not put - there can be problems with the letter.

For example, the child replaces in oral speech “r“ with “l“. Also writes instead of “Roma“ - “scrap“, instead of “gunpowder“ - “floors“. Or, if the sound absolutely is absent in the speech, can pass at all. For example, to write “koshun“ instead of “kite“.

2. The acoustic form of a dysgraphia

the Child can say all sounds purely, but at the same time replaces the letters designating phonetic similar sounds. On the letter couples of letters d - t, - p, - sh, in - f, - to or with - sh, z - h - shch, h - t, c - t, c - page

3 most often mix up. The dysgraphia because of violation of the language analysis and synthesis

Most often occurs at the children suffering from violations of written language. At this form of a dysgraphia children pass letters and syllables, rearrange them, do not finish the word, together write pretexts or separately prefixes. Sometimes it is possible to meet such violation as a kontamination: when syllables from different words occur in the word. For example, “krabochka“ - crabsticks.

4. The Agrammatichesky dysgraphia

As can be understood from the name, it is connected with an underdevelopment of a grammatical system of the speech. Rules of grammar for such child do not exist. Coordination of nouns and adjectives, nouns and verbs suffer (“Masha ran“, “blue a coat“).

5. An optical dysgraphia

the Elements forming letters are not numerous

: generally it is sticks, circles, hooks... But they are differently combined in space, forming various letters. And here it is heavy to child at whom are insufficiently created visually - spatial representations, the visual analysis and synthesis to catch distinctions between letters. Will attribute an excess stick to t, at sh will not add a hook.

If the child does not catch subtle differences between letters, then it by all means will result in difficulties of assimilation of a tracing of letters and to their wrong image on the letter.


It is warned - almost armed

the Dysgraphia better to warn at early age, without waiting when in the second or third class suddenly there are problems, and the child will have a disgust for study. It is necessary to be on guard the child, to watch fixedly process of mastering written language:

  1. if the child attended logopedic kindergarten; years the delay of speech development was li>
  2. if in 2 - 3;
  3. if the child has problems with memory and attention;
  4. if the child the lefthander or the retrained lefthander;
  5. if the child had head injuries;
  6. by
  7. if by seven years did not correct violations of a sound pronunciation.