Rhesus factor - the conflict at pregnancy of
Among various troubles which can happen at pregnancy a specific place is held by a Rhesus factor - the conflict. He is when the pregnant woman has a negative Rhesus factor, and at a fruit - positive. What actions should be taken at the same time?from a school bench to us knows to
what important role for the person is played by red blood cells - erythrocytes. When erythrocytes were studied rather in detail, it became clear that these red blood cells bear a huge amount of proteins on the surface. We are very well familiar with some of these proteins - they define blood type type. Let`s get acquainted with one - with so-called a Rhesus factor - a factor.
a Rhesus factor - the factor defines whether there will be a person a Rhesus factor - positive or a Rhesus factor - negative. What does it mean? Everything is simple: the matter is that the Rhesus factor - a factor is not at all people therefore when it is absent, say that blood a Rhesus factor - negative. Respectively, when the Rhesus factor - a factor is available, blood - a Rhesus factor - positive.It is interesting to
a Rhesus factor - positive and the Rhesus factor - negative people strongly influences a ratio racial accessory. So, if among Europeans 85% of the population about a Rhesus factor - a factor are noted, then among Africans this figure makes 93%, and in the Asian countries the population share about a Rhesus factor - positive blood approaches 99%, i.e. the problem a Rhesus factor - the conflict is not so actual for these regions as, for example, for us.
In what an essence a Rhesus factor - the conflict? >
It appears h2, the Rhesus factor - the conflict arises only because of immune system! The Rhesus factor - the conflict is no other than “tricks“ of our own immunity. What does not “arrange“ it?
our organism does not accept penetration of alien proteins. If it occurs, antibodies which purpose - to destroy and extort “robber“ from an organism subsoil are formed. Thanks to this vital function we are capable to resist to various pathogenic activators and their toxins. However in a case about a Rhesus factor - the conflict such activity of immunity is capable to do to future child serious harm. As we already know, the Rhesus factor - a factor is a same protein and if it appears in the person about a Rhesus factor - negative blood, the immune system right there begins the defensive actions as such protein for it is alien. Unfortunately, it also occurs when in an organism the Rhesus factor - negative mother develops a Rhesus factor - a positive fruit.Dangerous consequences a Rhesus factor - the conflict
of the Antibody of mother begin with
mass attack to erythrocytes of the developing child on which surface there is “stranger“ for a maternal organism of squirrels - a Rhesus factor - a factor. As a result erythrocytes collapse (gemolizirutsya) and throw out in blood pigmentary substance - the bilirubin painting skin and mucous in yellow color (hemolytic jaundice of newborns). As erythrocytes collapse, their general quantity in the child`s blood sharply decreases (i.e. there is anemia), and ability to transfer oxygen considerably worsens. As a result, various bodies and fabrics (including a brain) can experience strong oxygen starvation, and their development can be broken in the pre-natal period, that is at pregnancy. In the most hard cases from - for strong damages of the bodies and fabrics caused by deficiency of oxygen fruit dropsy when on all body and in internals hypostases are formed is possible
. Unfortunately, at the same time all actions for rescue of life of the child often are useless. That is why the Rhesus factor - the conflict is considered one of the most dangerous complications of pregnancy, and its possible development should not be left without medical control at all.
When and how the Rhesus factor - the conflict is formed?
From everything told now can draw a conclusion that the Rhesus factor - the conflict is capable to be created only in that case when mother has a Rhesus factor - negative, and the father has a Rhesus factor - positive blood. In that case the probability of conception a Rhesus factor - a positive fruit makes 75%. At the same time, the Rhesus factor - the conflict will never be if the woman a Rhesus factor - positive or the man a Rhesus factor - negative.
But even if the married couple was “adverse“ on a Rhesus factor - to a factor, pregnancy should not be afraid or in general to refuse it. Especially as at the first pregnancy risk of development a Rhesus factor - the conflict it is insignificant it is small. A Rhesus factor - the conflict it is necessary for emergence that erythrocytes of the child got to blood vessels of mother. However the nature carefully took care of that mixture of blood of mother with blood of a fruit was impossible. The special barrier which and is called - a gematoplatsentarny barrier successfully copes with a problem of strict differentiation of blood systems of mother and the developing baby. It consists of fabrics of a placenta and passes gaseous substances: oxygen from mother to the child and carbon dioxide from the child to mother, but does not allow to get to blood cells. Even if this barrier will also crack because of various diseases of a placenta, the probability a Rhesus factor - the conflict at the first pregnancy all the same remains very low. But the second and all subsequent pregnancies require the maximum attention and the increased medical control. Why?
during first labor a Rhesus factor - positive erythrocytes of the newborn get into a Rhesus factor - negative blood of mother: not to avoid it even at normal childbirth, not to mention Cesarean section in any way. And though antibodies which are developed in reply are not capable to do much harm any more to the child (as they appear after childbirth), is held “immune in remembrance“, from - behind which the woman becomes very susceptible to alien for her a Rhesus factor - to a factor. Therefore at the second pregnancy, “incompatible“ on a Rhesus factor, these antibodies begin to be developed very quickly and in the large numbers sufficient for penetration into a fruit. The probability of such succession of events with each subsequent pregnancy becomes above.
How to prevent a Rhesus factor - the conflict?
Of course, from the point of view of prevention the Rhesus factor - the conflict by the ideal partner for a Rhesus factor - the negative woman is a Rhesus factor - the negative man. However in practice such married couples meet not so often and the choice of the partner in life on a Rhesus factor - to a factor, to put it mildly, is unreasonable. Therefore we will proceed from a real situation. So, what preventive measures are proposed by modern medicine in avoidance a Rhesus factor - the conflict?
First of all, future mother herself has to understand what on it lies responsibility and to strictly observe terms of medical control. So, at least 1 time a month it is necessary to take a blood test for definition of antibodies to a Rhesus factor - to a factor. If there are no antibodies, so everything goes well and the Rhesus factor - the conflict does not threaten the child. However increase of their level demonstrates that activity of immune system in relation to a Rhesus factor - to a factor amplifies. In certain cases researches are supplemented with the analysis of amniotic waters and an umbilical blood. If all analyses confirm the beginning of development a Rhesus factor - the conflict, it is necessary to lay down on preservation in the specialized perinatal center where the corresponding treatment will be carried out, and mother and her future kid will be under continuous medical supervision.
Even in the absence of signs a Rhesus factor - the conflict during pregnancy a Rhesus factor - the negative woman needs to investigate right after childbirth blood on a Rhesus factor - a factor at the newborn. If blood is a Rhesus factor - positive, then to mother within 72 hours special antirezusny immunoglobulin is after the delivery entered. It destroys those erythrocytes of the child which got to mother`s blood at his birth. And destroys very quickly, still before immunity of a maternal organism manages to develop antibodies. Thanks to it danger the Rhesus factor - the conflict at the following pregnancy is nullified.
the Same immunoglobulin enter a Rhesus factor - the negative woman no later than 72 hours after transfusion a Rhesus factor - positive blood, after an abortion, abortion and in some other cases. Today with the preventive purpose it is recommended to enter to all pregnant women about a Rhesus factor - negative blood - even in the absence of antibodies to a Rhesus factor - to a factor - on
, than risks of other complications of pregnancy. Therefore too it does not make to be afraid of it any sense, especially in the presence of accurately fulfilled and effective system of prevention. Besides not at everyone “the Rhesus factor - conflict“ couples is noted this complication even at the second and third pregnancy. Why, doctors do not know still. But it is quite possible that disclosure of this riddle will give new knowledge which will help to turn this dangerous phenomenon into an easy incident in hands of physicians.