Iron deficiency anemia: prevention and treatment of
occur At children of anemia often, and the most widespread among them - iron deficiency, at early age reveal it at
Should not belong to anemia as to a frivolous disease which “will pass itself“. It worsens health of the child, many bodies and systems begin to work with tension, but the growing brain of the kid is especially sensitive to insufficient supply with oxygen.
Iron is important for a human body: it participates in oxygen transport to all fabrics and carbon dioxide from them, in restoration of the damaged fabrics, is a part of many enzymes and proteins, supports normal work of immunity.iron is spent by
In the growing organism not only for compensation of its losses and formation of hemoglobin (it transports oxygen), but also for creation of additional stocks for growth.
This microcell collects in an organism of future kid throughout all pregnancy, arriving through a placenta from mother. Therefore it is important that the most pregnant woman had no displays of iron deficiency anemia. The most part of reserves of iron vnutriutrobno collects at a fruit during the last trimester. Premature children do not manage to receive a sufficient stock of this element, and after the birth they quickly enough form an iron deficiency state.
After the birth iron comes to an organism with food. Contains in breast milk of iron less, than for example, in cow or goat, but thanks to special protein to a laktoferrin it is soaked up much better therefore availability of iron from breast milk is higher. Besides, laktoferrin connects the iron which is not soaked up in intestines, thereby interfering with reproduction it is conditional - pathogenic bacteria.
In the first 5 months of life to the healthy kid enough reserves of iron which were created vnutriutrobno happen. But from - for fast a metabolism by 6 months they are exhausted. Iron which arrives with breast milk, becomes insufficiently, and already products of a feeding up begin to play a role in completion of its deficiency.
Iron contains in different products, but from food of a phytogenesis it is soaked up much worse, than from animal products. And councils to use apples, pomegranates in large numbers, buckwheat are not justified because the form which contains iron in them is acquired from intestines badly, despite its big percentage. Fish, the liver and meat in turn improve absorption of this microcell from cereals, vegetables and fruit. Milk, tea, porridges from cereals complicate digestion of iron from - for the fitat which are contained in them, phosphates, calcium and tannin. In the presence of ascorbic acid and fructose the speed of absorption of iron increases. It is important also that the food contained enough protein.the Reasons of deficiency of iron at the child can be
- pathology of pregnancy at which intake of iron to a fruit is broken (toxicoses, threat of interruption, a disease or anemia of mother during pregnancy);
- prematurity, mnogoplody;
- blood loss in labor, early bandaging of an umbilical cord;
- early artificial feeding, feeding by cow`s or goat milk, unbalanced food of the kid;
- the increased growth rates (at premature, children with big body weight at the birth, in the second half of the year and on the second year of life);
- of bleeding (including at part of girls during formation of a menstrual cycle) or violation of absorption in intestines (chronic enterita, hereditary syndromes).
of the Stage of anemia
Anemia arises not at once, in its development allocate a number of consecutive stages. At first iron reserves in fabrics - so-called prelatentny deficiency of iron are exhausted. It has no external signs, but at children, unlike adults, iron begins to be soaked up worse from intestines. Laboratory it is possible to confirm it only by means of the difficult special procedures which are not intended for daily practice.to
the Second stage - the latent (hidden) deficiency when except fabric stocks it is exhausted and the iron transported by proteins of blood, content of hemoglobin and erythrocytes it is still not changed. This stage can be distinguished laboratory and on a number of insignificant symptoms. In biochemical blood test the content of serumal iron will decrease and iron-binding ability of serum will increase. During this period the child quickly and easily gets tired, becomes irritable and whimsical, at it appetite can decrease.
the Third stage - directly iron deficiency anemia, develops when all reserves of iron in an organism are settled. Changes will be already and in the general blood test - the level of hemoglobin becomes lower than 110 g/l, perhaps small decrease in erythrocytes, they become a different form and the sizes, are poorly painted by dyes. In blood remains lowered the level of serumal iron, iron-binding ability of serum is increased.
Pathological symptoms concern practically all bodies and systems. The child can complain of weakness, he badly transfers physical activity, often is capricious and cries. Skin becomes pale, dry, hair - dim and fragile. At every third child aged till 3 years having anemia the perversion of taste, sense of smell and appetite is observed - the smell of gasoline, exhaust gases, soap begins to be pleasant to them, children begin to give preference to spicy, salty or sour food, and sometimes eat inedible substances - chalk, clay, starch, ice.
the Mucous membrane of a mouth at anemia becomes drier and vulnerable, in hard cases inflammatory changes on gums, lips, language are possible, teeth are surprised caries more often. Changes concern also warmly - vascular, urinary, nervous systems, zheludochno - an intestinal path. At children with anemia immunity decreases, and they begin to have intestinal or respiratory infections often.
From - for deficiency of iron absorption of lead which contains in exhaust gases of cars, in industrial emissions of the enterprises of the large cities amplifies. It adversely influences the growing organism, can lead to changes of intelligence, behavior, and also diseases of blood and kidneys.
On the content of hemoglobin are distinguished by three severity of anemia: easy, if hemoglobin within 83 - 110 g/l, average weight at hemoglobin of 66 - 82 g/l and heavy if hemoglobin is lower than 66 g/l. In proportion to hemoglobin in blood the maintenance of erythrocytes decreases.
the Principles of treatment of iron deficiency anemia
It is important to organize correctly a day regimen - the child has to spend in the fresh air not less than 3 hours a day. Researches showed that in that case hemoglobin is formed quicker. The same effect is rendered by massage and remedial gymnastics.it is necessary for
of the Nursing mother it is balanced to eat that enough iron got to milk. The diet of the child has to be more senior full too: to contain rather animal protein, and also fresh vegetables and fruit.
Important rule: if deficiency of iron was already created, then to fill it without ferriferous preparations, only one diet, it is impossible.
For treatment to children most often are appointed by drugs in the form of syrup or a drop inside, the doctor will calculate a necessary dose and a course of a preparation. Medicine it is better to give the first time in a half dose to exclude individual intolerance. If after taking the medicine there are nausea, vomiting, belly-aches, a lock or a diarrhea, the doctor either will reduce a dose, or will replace a preparation. Within 7 - 10 days the dose is gradually brought to full. As a rule, treatment quite long, is not less than 3 weeks, takes place under regular control of level of hemoglobin, retikulotsit and erythrocytes in blood. After normalization of figures of hemoglobin preparations of iron accept still some time to fill its stock in fabrics. In complex treatment also use vitamins C minerals (copper, cobalt, nickel, manganese).
during treatment iron can paint the child`s chair in black color. It is better to wash down medicine with fruit juice on which the child has no allergy - the vitamin C which is contained in it improves iron absorption. And milk, tea, on the contrary, worsen.If anemia is found by
in the kid with an infectious disease, begin to fill shortage of iron by means of drugs only after recovery. Such anemia can be just result of redistribution of reserves of iron in an organism.