It is not necessary to litter! How to teach children of thrift
Ecologically competent behavior very often accords with the principles of rationality, thrift, the thought-over relation to purchases, to the time, to the organization of environment. And only adults - parents and tutors can teach all this children, of course.
In the European gardens to children are taught by such rules of conduct:
- not to take
of that it is not necessary for them;
- not to throw out what else can use;by
- to choose natural materials for work;
- to prefer useful products to harmful;to draw
- on both parties of a sheet of paper, completely using it;the covered with drawings paper to use
- for hand-made articles;
- cutting out details, to begin with edge, but not with the middle;to watch
- at acquisition of wax pencils that they were papered, but not in plastic;to draw
- pencils, but not felt-tip pens because from felt-tip pens there is a plastic;to write
- with handles with a replaceable core;to buy by
- strong wooden toys and other objects from resistant natural materials;
- to refuse disposable paper and plastic tableware, to buy drinks in glass bottles and banks which can be handed over;
- that children since the early childhood learned to sort garbage, in kindergartens put multi-colored buckets, boxes or trash bins in each group; children can separately collect aluminum, paper and a cardboard, glass, metals, synthetic materials, biological garbage, batteries.
Generalizing contents of programs in ecology for preschool institutions, it is possible to select the following sections.
- of Where and when there is a garbage. Children tell about what garbage to them in life meets that they throw out and why. Children are asked to remember where the garbage disappears after it was thrown out.
- of Children is acquainted with waste recycling (burning of waste for the purpose of obtaining energy, creation of paper products from waste paper, processing of scrap metal, use of the slags which are formed when burning for a construction of roads).
- Children compose fantastic, fantastic stories (for example, about people who save different stuff), play the sketches connected with collecting, otvozy and waste recycling.
- Children learn to sort garbage , answering questions: whether
- All garbage identical? What do the things which are thrown out in garbage differ from each other in? Check
- whether things in garbage were correctly thrown out. Perhaps, there was something that can be used once again? How?
- Children are told about that, as can reduce quantity of garbage ; how to save natural raw materials; how to reduce an electric power expense.
- of Children is acquainted with process by paper production from a tree and from waste paper, with glass production from sand and from beaten glass.
- to Children is explained that the same glass bottle allows to save a reuse on production of 60 cans, and also give other examples of economy in a household.
- to Children is explained as well as how many to buy products in shop, paying attention to their quality, freshness, cost, convenience of packaging and preparation, and also from a position of economy of natural resources. Besides, they receive data on how to store and process products.
- of Children is acquainted with dangerous things and products . It is possible to refer old drugs, mercury thermometers, batteries, the remains of varnishes, paints, solvents and other household chemicals, barrels from the contents remains to this category. Children learn to be attentive to the objects surrounding them, not to use strange or dangerous objects.
- Children are told, that represents compost how to learn to create compost in the village or at the dacha, emphasize importance of a composting, whenever possible, of all biological waste. Explain to children what can be punched: branches, stalks, leaves, bark of trees, bushes and flowers, the food remains, scraps, an egg shell, filters with a coffee thick, tea bags.
a puncher - that children participated in its filling. They can watch how compost is formed of the biological remains then: as temperature in a box increases (sometimes to 70 degrees!), as the remains rot through as humus - the natural fertilizer which does not have equal is below formed. Right there tutors explain that its education is promoted by bacteria, fungi, earthworms, and also access of water and air.
From the book “Preschool and primary education abroad. History and present“