Aggressive child: to understand and help. Part 2
How to distinguish healthy aggression from pathological? And how to help the child? The children`s psychiatrist Eliseus Osin tells.
History third. Aggression as affect
to Masha eight years, and it are afraid own parents. There are days when Masha is quiet and friendly, quietly plays with children, obeys parents. But there are days in which the girl as though is substituted. Parents since morning notice that the mood of the girl exchanged - on eyes, on gait, a bearing. Also wait for trouble. In such days only the occasion that Masha exploded as a small bomb is necessary: from - for too hot tea, from - for the glance darted at it, from - for remarks she suddenly changes in the person, reddens, shouts, threatens, offends. At school to children gets even more: Masha can fly with fists, it is cruel to beat those who as it seemed to her, offended her. Masha long does not calm down, runs away to the room, there throws books, toys, only in half an hour recovers. >
it is easy to p to notice a distinctive feature of this type of aggression - strong, long, uncontrollable emotion - affect is the cornerstone. Such type of aggression is connected with instability of affect, internal mood swings, not connected with any external reasons. To understand this type of aggression, imagine some enraged animal to a limit - for example, a bull. His eyes are poured by blood, breath becomes frequent, heart beats. This bull already not just animal, it - the real tool of destruction. The affect, feeling of anger gives it force and endurance, it does it fearless and even tolerant to pain. At people the anger can do the same. It is good when it arises to the place - for example when it is necessary to banish the hooligan. But it is bad when this strong feeling arises in itself, even close and dear people begin to be felt as enemies. At people so happens at some emotional frustration, bipolar affective disorder (when the mood is easy and without the reason changes from raised to lowered), consequences of injuries of brain, frustration of an autistic range. At these frustration ability to regulate own emotions - their character and expressiveness is broken. In some sense of people with such violation becomes the slave to the strong feeling which arose at it: the feeling begins to direct it, but not it feeling. A big problem in this case, as well as in case of impulsive aggression, will be the fact that aggressive effect are had are directed not to achievement of some specific purpose, and to harming. By the way, this type of aggression is strongly connected with impulsive, they are quite often observed together though all - and are the phenomena different in essence.
Parents treated Masha to the children`s psychiatrist. After inspection the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder was made to the girl. The doctor appointed the medicine stabilizing mood and directed it to the psychologist to classes in development of the emotional sphere. On these occupations Masha learned to define the emotions, to speak about them. Thanks to medicine of fit of anger at Masha began to be shown much less often, and on occupations with the psychologist the girl learned to distinguish the moments when she begins to fly into a rage and to speak about it to children and parents, to ask that she for some time was left alone.
History fourth. Aggression as fear
to Volodya ten years. He was never a simple guy - very mobile, with unstable mood, inclined to fears and alarm. The first two classes were very difficult, the boy refused to go to school, broke school discipline. At the end of the first class Volodya transplanted on the last school desk for bad progress in study, and it developed the real depression: it seemed to it that it is the worst. At new school at other teacher Volodya, having felt care and caress, blossomed, made close friends, became the good pupil. In the summer after the third class the boy went to camp, one went. He very much waited for this trip, it was the real adventure! But from the very first days Volodya began to call home and to ask mother it to take away. He complained that he is beaten by children, take away toys that he became “whipping boy“, nobody is on friendly terms with it... Tutors by phone calmed uneasy mother, promised that the boy will get used and adapts. When mother in a month of a visor of the son, she did not recognize him. Gloomy, intense, he almost did not speak, only through clenched teeth damned mother for the fact that she gave it there. Volodya began to sleep very uneasily, he dreamed nightmares about which he did not want to tell anybody. Houses Volodya several times suited terrible hysterics: suddenly unexpectedly destroyed furniture, shouted, cried, lashed out with fists at those who tried to hold it. The same episode was also once on the street when he saw the boy with whom was in camp: Volodya began to shout that he will kill him, threw stones, tried to escape somewhere. Hysterics disappeared unexpectedly - almost as well as began. Mother, having been frightened of changes in a condition of the boy, hospitalized him in lunatic asylum.
When a little later the psychologist talked to Volodya about what happened to it, the boy told that after the taken place events he constantly felt the increased alarm, and sometimes and fear for the life. Both the fear, and alarm is adaptive reactions of an organism to dangerous situations, however at some frustration these experiences reach such expressiveness that the person loses ability to control them. Instead of organizing behavior of the person for protection, they will disorganize it, causing not directed aggression, irritability, sleep disorders. Quite often excitement episodes discharge alarm a little, children can feel sense of relief, such sense of relief after strange hysterics was felt also by Volodya. Similar is observed at depressions, disturbing frustration, some types of frustration of the personality and is very frequent at post-traumatic stressful frustration (PTSR). The essence of these frustration that the alarm leaves from - under control of the person is observed without external occasion, and at children very often leads to aggression emergence. It is the aggression connected with sensation of fear, inherently - protective. Imagine the rat driven into a corner. She has no place to run - and she snatches on the opponent, in tens of times exceeding it in sizes. As soon as there is an opportunity to escape, it right there uses it. The problem is that those who constantly are alarmed cannot escape from it as it does an animal, and out of a situation of external danger will be excited over and over again, trying to protect themselves. From such aggression punishment will not help too, it is necessary to treat those states which caused it: depression, alarm, PTSR.Volodya at the time of hospitalization when parting with mother gave to
a terrible hysterics again - ran on hospital, hid under benches, shouted as if he is going to be killed. The doctor on duty, without having managed to understand, threatened the boy that if he does not calm down, then he will be seriously punished. It should helped - the scared boy attacked on the doctor with fists! Only after a while the attending physician distinguished deep fear behind the expressed aggression: Volodya was sure that parents threw him (again as it seemed to it), and will leave in hospital forever. It is no wonder that he took a defensive position. The doctor contacted parents and asked them to come to the boy every day. Having felt friendly the doctor, safety, constantly meeting mother, Volodya became much quieter and could attend classes with the psychologist. On occupations he long could not tell about what was with it in camp, only after some meetings could trust and tell the history. It turned out that then in camp the boy had serious reasons to be afraid for the life. The diagnosis of post-traumatic stressful frustration was made to the boy. Gradually the alarm and fear left, the psychologist helped to find self-confidence and to live the hardest experience. Volodya returned from hospital completely recovered.
Of course, it is rare when happens that these types of aggression are observed in pure form. Often impulsive aggression is observed together with affective excitability, tool aggression quite often happens at children to impulsiveness and so on. However it is almost always possible to allocate type which dominates at this specific child, and to work with it. Pathological aggression is not a uniform problem, even when its external manifestations are identical at different children. A lot of attention and understanding is required to understand, from - for what the child behaves dangerously, to understand how to help it.