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General blood test: what is the child ill?

to the Kid pricked a finger, took blood, next day, having waited in the long line, you took away the analysis. It is time in other turn to show the analysis to the doctor? Let`s glance there and we will try to understand that all these Latin words and mysterious figures mean.

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That it happened, doctors appoint same - the general blood test. Kidneys - the general blood test hurt, hurts in a breast - the same, temperature rose - again the general blood test, and there we will look. We - that though with you adults and if the child is ill? To it for what how much in vain to prick fingers - he cries!

Besides doctors, it is thoughtful in this analysis having looked, appoint always same - antibiotics. Appointed oletetrin, thirty years ago ten years ago - pockmarks, now here in fashion augmentin and supraks. I will tell in confidence: pockmarks, supraks and augmentin, though different in a chemical composition, work absolutely equally moreover and against the same bacteria.

Let`s decipher blood test together.

Red blood: what is it?

Aha. Blood test is divided into two parts. The first part - so-called “red blood“, that is hemoglobin, erythrocytes, platelets and a color indicator. All this brotherhood is responsible for transfer of oxygen in cages and at an infection not really and suffers. We need to be run only fluently on norms and having convinced that everything is good, to pass to the second part.

of Norm

Hemoglobin (it is Hb), is measured in grams on liter (!) also is responsible blood for oxygen transfer.

At the monthly child norm of 115 - 175 hemoglobin (it to you not the adult, is harder and harder here), in half a year - 110 - 140 - as well as at us, and so actually, even to of 10 - 12 years. 110 - 140 (145 according to other data) gram on blood liter.

Erythrocytes , they are RBC - cages in which hemoglobin also floats in blood. Just they by means of hemoglobin also transfer oxygen. In a month at the child norm will be 3,8 - 5,6 - attention! - trillions of erythrocytes on blood liter. The one-year-old child (as well as at the adult) has already less these trillions - 3,5 - 4,9 on blood liter. What to do - if to extort blood for the analysis in liters, everything should be considered in trillions. Nothing, it will be simpler further.

of Retikulotsita , they are RTC, their quantity, thank God, as a percentage is measured. It so to speak, young erythrocytes, children should not have them more than 15% about one year and at children years or at adults are more senior than no more than 12%. The lower limit of norm for retikulotsit - 3%. If it is less of them, the child is on an anemia threshold, and measures need to be taken as soon as possible.

Platelets . English abbreviation of PLT. It is significantly less of them, than erythrocytes - their quantity is measured “only“ in billions on blood liter, the norm from 180 to 400 for children about one year and from 160 to 360 for children is more senior than year or at adults. Platelets are actually and not cages at all, and so - fragments of a huge cage - the predecessor, from these fragments, if something happens, blood clots - for example to stop bleeding are formed if the kid, God forbid, is wounded.

of SOE (ESR). It even not cages at all, and an indicator of speed of subsidence of erythrocytes - the more this speed (and it is not the car, here speed is measured in millimeters an hour), the is more active inflammatory process concerning which to you perhaps and recommended to make blood test. Norms SOE in 1 month - 4 - 10, in 6 months 4 - 8, and here from a year to 12 years - from 4 to 12 mm an hour. Then norms of that SOE will differ also depending on a floor, but it already another story altogether.

Krom of these indicators, still the great number of others is - width of distribution of erythrocytes (RDWc), with the redny volume of an erythrocyte (MCV), the average content of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte (MCH) and even average concentration of hemoglobin in an erythrocyte gematokrit (NST), (MCHC). All these indicators serve for diagnosis of anemias therefore to us (we talk about infections, you remember?) it will be better to postpone their discussion for later.

not the system of transfer of oxygen, but system of protection of an organism against infections is much more important than

For us. It is so-called white blood, leukocytes. Here on it we will stop very much and very in detail.

Leukocytes or white blood: evolution of immune system

Leukocytes happen different. One are responsible for fight against bacteria, others finish with viruses, the third “specialize“ on to large adversaries at all - for example on plant cells (it happens more often than you think - I mean an allergy to pollen of plants) or even on multicellular bastards - worms.

Therefore to look at total number of leukocytes at a sharp infection - it is good, but devilishly it is not enough. At best the doctor will define that the infection is. But to understand what caused this infection, it is necessary to watch what leukocytes are raised. Such research is called a leykotsitarny formula.

Here we will also talk about it.

of Norm

the Main changes in red blood at children happen not that about one year - about one month, and it is connected with the fact that within the first month of life at the child in blood traces of transition to breath by lungs still remain. With immune system everything is much more difficult - it changes continuously within the first six years of life, and extremely unevenly. So, prepare: figures will be more.

Leukocytes . They are WBC. Their quantity is measured in billions on blood liter (that in comparison with erythrocytes looks somehow even lightly). And as at the birth the child passes from the sterile environment (mother`s womb) on Wednesday extremely unsterile, the quantity of leukocytes are even normal at children much higher, than at adults. However, with age it decreases. At the child of one month from a sort the norm of leukocytes in blood makes from 6,5 to 13,8, in half a year from 5,5 to 12,5, from a year to six years (aha, in that time when the child most often is ill) from 6 to 12. And only when immunity of the child becomes rather resistant to resist to numerous infections, the quantity of leukocytes approaches quantity them at adults - from 4,5 to 9 (some for some reason consider as norm 12, but it not absolutely so).

Neutrophils , they are NEU. Their quantity is considered not in absolute units (how many on blood liter) and percentage of total number of leukocytes. A problem of these cages - fight against bacteria. It is quite honest fight: neutrophils just eat the stood gaping bacterial cages and digest them. However, except bacterial cages neutrophils still act and as peculiar cleaners - in precisely the same way they clean from an organism any cellular garbage, and not just microbes.

Neutrophils happen different: there are palochkoyaderny neutrophils (these are some kind of juniors among cages - devourers), but them in blood not really - that and is a lot of - such affairs as destruction of infections - a task not the nursery. Their quantity almost does not change with age: both at monthly, and at one-year-old, and even at the six-year-old child is they are from 0,5 to 4. 5%. Only at children is more senior than seven years (as, however, and at adults) the upper bound of norm of palochkoyaderny neutrophils rises even to 6%. The child grew up, the organism got stronger - immunity is ready to invasions.

But the real “working horses“ of immune system is segmentoyaderny neutrophils - by the way, they are the main and almost only protection for children 2 years are younger. At children about one year it is normal of their from 15 to 45%, and from a year to six years (when works significantly increases) that quantity of neutrophils significantly grows - from 25 to 60%. At last, by seven years, the quantity of segmentoyaderny neutrophils reaches adult norm. However, this norm is very vague - from 30 to 60%. That is and thirty percent - norm, and sixty - norm too.

Monocytes , they are MON. It are “younger brothers“ of neutrophils . For the time being they sit in fabrics, and in blood come up exclusively seldom. Normal their quantity does not exceed from 2 to 12% at children about one year or at children years are more senior than from 2 to 10%. Adults on this indicator do not differ from children at all - same of 2 - 10%. However, when in blood begins not to be enough of neutrophils catastrophically, they are come to the rescue just by monocytes and number of monocytes in blood though is not strong, but increases.

Eosinophils , they are EOS. Say that eosinophils are responsible for allergic reactions. To put it mildly, it not absolutely so. Eosinophils do not make immunoglobulins of a class E which level just and is increased at allergic persons. Eosinophils if you want, - “the highest caste“ of cages - devourers (before as about cages - devourers we spoke about neutrophils and monocytes). They are capable to gobble up everything that it is not capable to gobble up them. Even multicellular aggressors (worms) and very large alien cages (for example, intestinal amoebas) desperately are afraid of of eosinophils . The matter is that eosinophils do not swallow a cage - they stick to them, inject the digestive enzymes in cages and then exhaust contents of these cages as the child exhausts a liter package of juice. Only turn away - and from a package (in our case from a small worm, for example) there is only an empty cover. It is normal of of eosinophils in blood a little - from 0,5 to 6%

Lymphocytes , they are LYM. These are the main cages of mature immune system. Their specialization - fight both against viruses and against bacteria. But especially hazardously lymphocytes finish either with viruses or with the own cages, by naivety of these viruses which sheltered. Normal in blood of the child years of lymphocytes from 40 to 72% are younger though they work, honestly, at half strength. And here when the immune system of the kid begins to develop (I remind, development of immune system after a year and comes to an end generally to to 6 - 7 years), the number of lymphocytes in blood rather sharply falls - to of 26 - 60%. At last, after 7 years lymphocytes “stop“ on a mark in of 22 - 50%.

Basophiles, BAS. Just young lymphocytes. Their number never exceeds 1%.

All. Uf - f - f - f...

And who is guilty of an infection?

When you know

what blood cells what are responsible for, to understand on blood test that for an infection attacked the child this time, not simply, and it is elementary simple. High SOE and high leukocytes - means, an infection in the heat and it is necessary to treat it just immediately (in a makeweight to these indicators most often there is temperature for 38C). High neutrophils - means, we got acquainted with the next bacteria, and high lymphocytes mean a viral infection.

Everything is simple

, as you can see. And now let`s look at examples. And not to be confused in figures, just we will say “much“ or “a little“. Let`s try?

Sharp viral infection

Signs . Leukocytes and SOE are higher than norm, in a leykotsitarny formula excess of quantity of lymphocytes, decrease in quantity of neutrophils. Monocytes and eosinophils can slightly raise.

What to do ? Most often doctors appoint the preparations containing interferon - viferon, kipferon or genferon.

It is important! In the same way as viruses, so-called intracellular parasites - hlamidiya and mycoplasmas behave. It is possible to distinguish them on clinical displays of a disease.“ The business card“ both those, and others - long dry cough at extremely muffled external picture - the child looks active, in lungs there are no rattles. Cough, nevertheless, can be added for weeks.

Chronic viral infection

Signs . The child often is ill, in blood normal SOE and normal (and even lowered) leukocytes. In a leykotsitarny formula on the upper bound of norm lymphocytes and monocytes float. Neutrophils on the lower bound of norm or are even even lower.

What to do? to Examine the child on antibodies to viruses Epstein - Bar and to a cytomegalovirus. Most likely, these two are guilty.

It is important! If the child just had a viral infection, blood test will be just the same. So if the child is ill two times a year and just had viral cold, to run to make tests on chronic viral infections a little prematurely.

Sharp bacterial infection

Signs. Leukocytes and SOE are higher than norm, in a leykotsitarny formula excess of quantity of neutrophils (and even monocytes together with them) against decrease in quantity of lymphocytes. Inflammation signs, such as temperature, purulent allocations from a nose, rattles in lungs or damp cough are externally visible.

What to do? the Most frequent medical appointments with such blood test are antibiotics of penicillinic group (augmentin, flemoklav, solyutab, supraks), is more rare - antibiotics of group of azaleads (vilprofen, sumamed).

Chronic or local bacterial infection

Signs. the Same - the raised neutrophils (not above the upper bound of norm) and the lowered lymphocytes (too in norm borders, is only closer to lower). If in blood tests there are such changes, it is necessary to look for local not really active center of an infection (Survey the ENT SPECIALIST - the doctor or a picture of okolonosovy bosoms, at suspicion on an infection of urinary tract - the general analysis of urine).

It is important! blood test after recently postponed bacterial infection In the same way looks.