Little speaker. How to develop the speech of the child?
In the modern world the beautiful and competent speech are the key to success. The correct speech helps the child to communicate freely with people around, to study and be self-assured successfully. How to teach the child to express the thoughts?With what to begin
the Mechanism of formation of the speech at the child is started from the very first day of life. That this process proceeded quickly and smoothly, to us, to the adult, it is necessary to become its most active participants. This long-term investment of our forces and emotions will pay off with interest already through three - four years when we receive the interesting interlocutor with the independent way of thinking and judgments. Development of the speech in children is a daily work of the kid and parents. Let`s consider stages of development of the speech in the child.to begin
C of what? Parents are a speech sample for the child. That is why it is so important to watch carefully not only what you tell, but also as you speak. From the very first days stimulate the speech of the kid: you say as much as possible with the child - you pronounce words accurately, slowly, but emotionally. Sound everything that you do, at the same time try not to be limited only to the household speech. Read poteshka, poems - all that rhythmically and well lays down aurally. Together consider study pictures in the book which is fallen in love to the kid, more precisely, ask questions. At first it will only show what you ask and then and to try to repeat after you. Play together with the child toys, in theater. Give it a model of forming of dialogues, situations, and gradually the child will answer you, and then and itself will think out game conditions.
the Speech is a life therefore do not close training within printed materials and interactive toys. The world around, the nature will inspire your kid on new verbal opening, will develop the imagination and will awaken imagination. On walks try to pay attention to such details as the curtailed dry leaf similar to a tubule which can become a telescope or a dewdrop which can quite become the most real sea for ants. Build sand castles with the twisting courses in the summer, start in common paper planes, spread on sand drawings from natural material. Collect in the fall bouquets of leaves (at the same time learn names of trees, shades of flowers), acorns, maple seeds which will go then to hand-made articles. You build snowmen in the winter and paint them with paints, bring home an icicle - let it will thaw in a basin. Start up ships in streams in the spring, show to the kid of drops, listen to chirping of sparrows. All these actions keep within the regime moments of the child and do not demand special expenses. But here if to miss time, to provide the kid to itself, then closer to school it is necessary to make up for lost time with great strides and what was so naturally put in the childhood, it is necessary to push in the big portions. And from such information overeating, you know what happens: fatigue, nervousness, unwillingness to study.
Unfortunately, not each parent has time and an opportunity to be engaged with the child systemically. Experts - teachers, - including children`s logopedists in the children`s developing centers can come to the rescue. Most often programs in them are directed to that the child developed harmoniously, obtaining and acquiring information according to age and specific features.
How to continue
What occurs further? And further we teach the child to use what he saved up, that is correctly and harmoniously to express the thoughts - to explain, prove, build logic of the narration and to compose. It is already more difficult process which is beyond the household speech and concerning verbal creativity. Here future compositions take the sources.
we Will begin this stage from scratch - abilities to make the small story about any live and lifeless object or a subject. In the future information of this sort is useful to your first grader for preparation of reports: the inability to dispose correctly of large volume of information is very frequent leads to the fact that the child finds it difficult to begin the narration, to make the story according to the picture. We will compare this process to a question of adulthood: “How are you doing?“, when it is possible to speak long and variously on the offered subject, but the majority is limited to the answer:“ Normally“. Let`s use schemes - these universal cards which are accurate step-by-step instructions and do not allow to lose a right way of word creation, in too time, relieving of repetitions and halts in the speech.
Who → What group treats → Description → Where lives → What eats → What benefit brings → Features
For example, here what story about a dog it is possible to make according to this scheme:
“The dog is a pet. Appearance of a dog depends on breed. Dachshunds - small, with a long body, the extended muzzle and a long tail. Paws at them short. These dogs are intended for hunting for foxes in narrow holes. Boxers have a flat muzzle, a broad chest, strong paws are a combative breed. In villages of a dog live on the street in the doghouse. In the cities of dogs keep in apartments. They eat meat, a special forage. Long since the dog was a friend and the irreplaceable assistant to the person. She helped it to guard the house, mouths of sheep, to hunt wolves, foxes, birds, rescued the person both on water, and in mountains. There are special seeing eye dogs for blind people“.the Similar scheme works with
That → What group treats → Parts → What it is made &rarr of; For what it is necessary
After the child learned to make stories - descriptions, it is possible to pass to the following stage - training of drawing up stories in a series of pictures. Here it is important to build ability a logical chain: to spread out pictures in the correct order, all our actions in usual life are made according to certain schemes. > it is important to p to inform of
the child that pictures and events which are taking place on them are not abstract stories, and what surrounds the kid in everyday life. Let the child will identify himself with the main character. Will tell that he would feel, told and made on the place of the character. Let will give the name and names of the friends to the drawn children.Let the kid will tell
rules of the game in a hide-and-seek, tag that it is necessary to make to clean teeth, to boil water in a teapot or to go down on the first floor. >
It is very important to p to broaden the child`s horizons, to tell about everything that surrounds it - it substantially will help to enrich a lexicon of your kid and quicker to develop the full competent speech. Try to be to your child in different places, to try as much as possible different cases, to play the most different games. For example, if the kid never was on fishing, he will not be able to compose the story about cheerful adventures of boys - fishers on the small river as here the laws, the terminology work.
Then we teach the child to make stories according to the picture. Let`s connect imagination and we will turn one picture into a series from three, having mentally presented the beginning, and then and an ending of our story.
I the last stage - the most difficult is an ability to make the story - the description of the nature according to the picture. At first sight, there is neither action, nor heroes, only one wood. But, having closed eyes and having stepped from reality in the thicket of the imagined wood, you find out that life is in full swing here. Not to get lost in this thicket, we will be come to the rescue, besides, by the scheme - the description of signs of seasons.
Here an example of the story about fall made according to this scheme:“In the fall days become shorter than
, and nights are longer. In an early autumn there are serene days. This time call “Indian summer“. But then the sky frowns, drags on clouds and for days on end the tiresome rain drizzles. Penetrating cold wind blows. Trees dress up in painted clothes - yellow, red, orange, purple. Wind will blow - and the multi-colored rain from leaves will fall down from trees. Fall - a leaf fall time. Birds gather in packs and fly away to warm regions. Animals are going to fall into hibernation, acquire a fat, stock food for the winter. Squirrels, hares change the summer fur coats on winter“.
At preschool age the native habitat of the child is a game therefore turn study into game. Be engaged, that is communicate on walk, on the way to a garden, shop. You do not stay at home at a table, as at school: just let`s the child look through the book, and that task which will interest him, execute together. If your child is motivated for study, then, on the contrary, it is possible to play with him school. Anyway, be guided by specific features of your child, find to him approach, and he will answer you with interest, a susceptibility and comprehension.
Attentively listen to the child, do not interrupt and you do not hurry him, do not abuse and do not compare to others. Be engaged when the child has a good mood when he slept and is not hungry.
Russian, as well as any other, demands a regularity therefore it is better to be engaged every day on
not only life language, but to use all richness of Russian in the speech. Communication - one of basic needs of the person, and your kid needs it as nobody else. Everyone has an opportunity to create, and we can do it every minute, creating small verbal masterpieces. Language not only one of the major means of communication, but also the live material having the color, a form and taste. We should open it for children, having taught to create them within certain laws. It is a long way, and from us, adults, depends whether the narrow wandering footpath or the wide road on the way to new knowledge, opening and free communication will be it.we Advise
- of T. Yu. Bardyshev, T. A. Chokhonelidze “Retellings and stories“. T. A. Tkachenko`s
- “Big book of tasks and exercises on development of the coherent speech of the kid“.