Frederick II. Than the person who was “bivat“ by A. Suvorov is great? Part 2the Philosopher and the musician at once became a soldier. And what! Together with the father he participates in war for the Polish inheritance. There its abilities are noted by the commander of campaign Evgeny Savoysky. And having succeeded to the throne in 1740, less than in a year Frederick II begins war for the Austrian inheritance. In it other interested parties are involved.
Then Seven years` war. In fact, world. Will begin with English - the French collisions in North America and it will be thrown to Europe. Military operations were conducted in India, Hugo - East Asia, the Central and South America. Covering the countries, in sharing of transatlantic colonies seemingly not interested: Austria, Russia and Prussia. The last seized rather the opportunity to get territories for someone else`s money: it was financed by England. Besides Friedrich anticipated neighbors. Preparing war, being afraid of the growing power of Prussia.
As a result Europe was not redistributed, but Friedrich strengthened the situation. Asserted once again the rights for disputable Silesia annexed by it in the previous war. Showed the military superiority. Of course, he was beaten, but always hardly, superior forces and expensive price. Usually and without trying to compete as equals! And soon - partitions of Poland and an increment of territories of Prussia. Also the colonial power of France in favor of England is still destroyed. For what Friedrich of half-war was at war on the English money. So it is possible to tell, and here he achieved an objective.
Often Friedrich`s strategy is characterized (and I including) as very conservative. Rigid fighting order, only possible tactics... So it often was also adopted by imitators. Only Friedrich was far more flexible both in tactics, and in strategy! Especially in the middle of wars, sustaining losses and not having an opportunity to give decisive battles. Cut with maneuvers communications, breaking plans of the opponent. It at it was studied too, from time to time playing Friedrich. But usually it dominated and here.
In the middle of Seven years` war Friedrich managed to fill up with considerable tricks the beaten-out army. These are not those learned fighters with whom he entered campaign, but nevertheless …
Friedrich showed considerable talent of the administrator both in war, and in a peace time. At it Prussia got territories, in fact, laying the foundation of further reunification of Germany. Also I will express personal opinion: for aggressive Frederick II, the most great commander of Europe, war was not end in itself! It seems that it was only one of means of maintaining policy. It is worth to remember, than there was then Prussia. The small kingdom (Friedrich was the king only in the third generation, and a title his grandfather received not so easily and unambiguously), one of a set of the German states, among the most powerful powers of Europe. By the way, by the end of war Prussia settled forces, having appeared on the verge of defeat. And here Elizabeth died. Friedrich`s admirer (and why not to imitate the best then commander and the politician?) Peter III stopped war. On the other hand, the Russian soldiers did not perish any more.
I will remind: there was no direct threat of Russia! And Elizabeth planned to constrain expansion of Prussia only. And it was reached!
Also war in many respects for the restrained vanity was waged. Not for nothing it was called “war of the angered women“! Maria - Tereziya, the marchioness Pompadur, Elizabeth - Friedrich truly took away lands only from the first. The caustic king offended the others a nifty!
And after war Friedrich plunged into creation! In a broad sense: built the country. A lot of things were made before war: the freedom of worship is declared; old are codified and new laws are developed; the opera and academy of Sciences are open. The San palace - Sushi is designed. Even in Seven years` war, Friedrich wintered 1760 - 61 in Leipzig, among scientists and artists. There, as well as in fight, it was the!
In fight. The king personally participated in them. One fact: at Kunersdorf under him killed three horses, he is wounded. He, apparently, looked for death and was nearly taken prisoner. It was withdrawn from action by soldiers. After fight Friedrich considered himself crushed and seriously said goodbye to relatives. Matter not only in fighting losses. Its army dissipated. But troops gathered and the king cheered up. Moreover also managed to fill up army more than once, let new troops were not that quality that at the beginning of war. Friedrich replaced tactics, acting already with maneuvers. But resources were not infinite. And in England the new king stopped war financing. Saved Prussia only the world with Russia.
Having dismissed part of troops (the devastated country was required to be restored) after war, Friedrich filled up army with the mercenaries wishing to it to serve. In a year it repeatedly offset losses of artillery. To 80 - m to years the army of Prussia was more than pre-war and same training...
There was a peaceful construction. The purpose was to restore military power, but the economy in order was put! Tax exemption, deliveries to peasants of bread... Subsidies, including on restoration of the industry. The king used not treasury, but personal means! Restored forestry. And human resources! From the Catholic states of Germany to Prussia Protestants began to flow.
After war Friedrich was nearly general intermediary in the European affairs. And peacekeeper! The partition of Poland compensated to Austria, Russia and Prussia the territorial acquisitions half-received in war.
No, there was no Friedrich the rested fighter! He wanted to build and built. Yes, sometimes it had to be done by war...
So in war for the Austrian inheritance Prussia “attached“ Silesia. Seven years` war - rather defensive. In 1778 Mr. Frederick is at war with Austria again. For the Bavarian inheritance. Here he, it seems, supports “justice“, interests of other German principalities not to allow Austria to extend the power to Germany. Friedrich did not buy lands, but Austria forced to refuse claims. War went maneuverable, without large battles. But collisions were, and 66 - summer Friedrich participated in them again!
Having protected interests of Germany, it became the recognized authority, having put the basis to future reunification of Germany.
Friedrich wrote the last part of the life about the time much. It is interesting that governing 46 years, he was at war generally years 15. But in the history remained not so much the largest administrator and the politician, how many an aggressor!
And to Friedrich the state was most important. Investing personal money in restoration of the ruined country, he in the spirit told: “My state is rich, but I am poor so?“
In general the king, in youth inclined to luxury, was extremely unpretentious in life. In campaigns slept in tent and in magnificent palaces (lovingly to them built) lived very on - Spartan. Probably, another was more important for it absolutely!
And coming back to a subject of the attitude towards Friedrich which developed in the Russian history... Though here not everything is unambiguous. The same Catherine II of the king of Prussia, maybe, also disliked, but spoke of him validly, willingly went on the union. And Friedrich left such characteristic of Russians: “The Russian soldier is not enough to be killed, he needs to be tumbled down still“. And very much sought to make Russia the ally.
And I hope to return to this remarkable historic figure still more than once...