Training of children for school. Invisible beings round the corner, or Under a shadow of prejudices
Preparation for school - one of the most concerning and sensitive issues, especially for those parents whose children should go to the first class soon. Their disorders are clear, the school is a new stage in the child`s life. When children are admitted to school, they have interview in the form of testing or, so to speak, small examination where teachers check their skills of the account, letters and readings, and also the general level of preparation for school. In spite of the fact that the law forbids schools “to carry out reception of children on a competitive basis“ (item 10 of the Order of Department of Education of Moscow of March 16, 2010 № 681 “About Regulations of Admission of children in the first class of the public educational institutions of system of Department of Education of the city of Moscow realizing the main general education programs“), at submission of documents for transfer in the first class carrying out tests (examinations, tests, competitions, interviews, etc. are not allowed), nevertheless, requirements to knowledge and abilities of future first graders raise from year to year. It is explained by the fact that school programs are calculated on fast digestion of volume material. And one more factor - formation of classes with more or less prepared pupils.Parents before school ask
a question more often how to teach to read, write and consider the child, seek to pass the program of 1 class quicker. Of course, there is no wish “to lose with the child face“ before teachers on testing.
Year by year requirements to first graders become tougher, and many parents are convinced that the most important preparation to school is as soon as possible to teach to consider the child, to read and write. However, as proved long-term experience of teachers and psychologists, it not the main thing.
we Will give an example:
the Elementary school teacher from the city Vladimira Natalya Nikolaevna Salikhova who worked with children of elementary school of 29 years notes that “if at the child the attention, different types of memory, imagination develops, he will be able to introduce the ideas - to it, respectively, will easier come into contact and to learn to argue. I in 29 years had in 1 class also reading, and not reading children. But the second very quickly caught up with the first. And reading sometimes even lagged behind in training as a result. It is easy to remember a letter if the child has no deviations in development. And here to remember the characteristic of a sound, to be able to argue, build the statement - it is difficult. Many parents in vain think that if the child to school learned to read, then it will be easy for him at school... “
Galina Ivanovna Cherdantseva from Moscow told that for the senior preschool children very important that parents and tutors spoke with children more, asked them questions, not just read, but also talked about read. Were engaged in development of small motility of hands. It is an effective way of preparation of a hand for the letter. Finger-type gymnastics, shading, occupations by the fine arts, work with plasticine and paper, etc. - obligatory occupations for future first grader.“ Mind of the child is on tips of his fingers“, - V. Sukhomlinsky so spoke. Development of a hand - it is very important as bad motility is a defective performance of a task, fatigue, stresses that leads to negative attitude to school, there are neurosises, failures and unwillingness to go to school.
Let`s try to come out of “the shadow of prejudices“, we will remove prejudices and we will understand that, first of all, it is necessary to pay attention to health of the child and his development. I suggest you to look at your kid not from the public point of view (because Ivanov` family so does, so it is necessary also to us), and with individual. As far as your child is prepared for school.
“To be ready to school - does not mean to be able to read, write and consider. To be ready to school - means to be ready to learn all this,“ - the children`s psychologist L. A. Wenger considered. And as he was right!
It is representable that “preparation for school“, is a certain rectangle where its biggest party is called “Ability to read, consider, to write“. These skills are called pedagogical readiness of the child. Unfortunately, many parents “are fixated“ on this party of a rectangle and do not want to look at all parties and aspects of “preparation for school“. However if we “turn for each corner“, then we will see that one more party of preparation for school is called “psychological readiness“, there is also “a speech readiness“ and “physical readiness“. It is important to understand that all these aspects are interconnected, and it is necessary to develop each of them.
School psychologists consider by
the child not ready to school training if it:
- it is not independent or insufficiently independent;
- is not able to concentrate on a task;
- is not able to listen to the instruction of the teacher; by
- it is more ready for game, than for the doctrine;
- is not able to be on friendly terms with peers;
- is not able to talk politely to adults and to listen to them;
- it is too clamped or constraining, or, on the contrary, it is too excited and active;
- at it have not enough knowledge of world around, he is not able to compare, generalize, analyze, etc.
At any level of knowledge and readiness in the first class. And here poor progress, unwillingness to study is a result of the fact that the preschool child psychologically was not ready to training at school.
What is psychological readiness for training in school?
When is told about psychological readiness, mean three aspects of a school maturity: intellectual, emotional and social which include analytical thinking, ability to concentrate attention, ability to regulate the behavior, an opportunity to perform tasks which does not want to be carried out sometimes, rather long time, and also, need of the child for communication with peers and ability to communicate.
From the scheme given above we see that psychological readiness for training at school includes intellectual, motivational, communicative and strong-willed readiness. Let`s consider in more detail each aspect of readiness for school.
Intellectual readiness is a development of attention, memory, thinking, ability to analyze and generalize. In other words, the child has to be able not guided in time and space, but also to have a stock of household knowledge of world around.
Motivational readiness is a readiness for educational activity and existence of motivation. This type of readiness means presence at the child of desire to accept a new social role - a role of the school student. It is very important that the school was attractive to the child by the main activity - study. In formation at preschool children of motivation to study an important role is played by a family as the basic human wants, including social and informative, are put and actively develop already in the period of the early childhood.
Strong-willed readiness is an ability of the child to conform to the rules, contrary to the desires. Strong-willed readiness is an ability to set before itself the purpose and to make decisions, to execute certain commands, to follow algorithm of performance of actions, to be able to estimate the actions and actions of others. Also high performance is significant. Development of strong-willed readiness will be helped by occupations of a creative cycle - drawing, designing, a molding.
Communicative readiness is an ability of the child to communicate with collective, to be on friendly terms and live in collective, ability to communicate with the teacher and adults, to respect certain standards of behavior. Readiness of the child to be left without parents with the teacher and a class.to
to Development of communicative readiness are promoted by regular trainings (as classes in early development, and in preparation for school), visits of festive actions, competitions, performances at concerts, visit of drama school, occupation by music and dances.
Physical readiness is not only ability of “deduction of static poses in a sitting position“, but also development of small motility of hands (ability to stick laces, to button, surely and correctly to hold tableware), and also the general physical endurance. Occupations in sports sections, classes in beadwork and knitting will help with development of physical readiness of occupation by rhythmics, dances.
Speech readiness. It is known that the better oral speech is developed at the child, the easier for him to seize reading and the letter. The child has to be able to carry on dialogue, to be able to ask questions, to answer them, to be able to retell read or heard, to be able to own the coherent speech. By preparation for school need to pay attention quality of a sound pronunciation, ability to build offers, to the correct use of pretexts, ability to make the story according to the picture.
Phonetic defects of the speech are one of the reasons of developing of a dysgraphia (violation of the letter) and a dyslexia (reading violation).by
during the researches on overcoming of difficulties in training of children conducted by authoritative psychologists A. F. Anufriyev and S. N. Kostromina revealed the most typical violations in the sphere of educational activity. This research is rather important as allows us to understand the nature arising problems by preparation for school and training in initial classes.
of Research was shown that “in written works those children who have a low level of development of phonemic hearing, who have a weak concentration of attention pass letters, there is not formation of methods of self-checking.
Backwardness of spelling vigilance at children with a low level of development of randomness, with not formation of methods of educational activity (self-checking, ability to work by the rule), with the low level of volume and distribution of attention and a low level of development of short-term memory. >
At research it was noted by p that 17% of children are inattentive and disseminated. It means that these children have a low level of concentration and stability of attention, and the prevailing motivation of the doctrine - game.
the Pupils experiencing difficulties at the solution of mathematical tasks have a low level of development of figurative thinking, a low level of development of the general intelligence, weak understanding of grammatical designs.
of 13,5% of children experience difficulties at a text pereskazyvaniye. These are children with the low level of speech development, with a low level of development of figurative thinking, the underestimated self-assessment, a low level of development of logical operations (the analysis, generalization, systematization).
of 13,1% of restless children with a low level of development of the strong-willed sphere.the explanation from the first difficult understands
of 12,7%. These are pupils with not formation of methods of educational activity and weak concentration of attention, with a low level of development of the general intelligence and a low level of development of perception.
Especially wants to tell about identifications of such violation as dirt in a notebook. It speaks about poorly developed thin motility of fingers of hands, not formation of methods of educational activity, about a low level of development of short-term memory at the child.
is Badly written off from a board (8,7%). At such pupils prerequisites of educational activity are not created, they have a low level of switching of attention and a low level of development of short-term memory.by
It was noticed that if during a lesson the child leaves and there is no long time, then it means that it has no educational motivation, the attitude towards itself as to the school student is not created, there are difficulties in digestion of material“.
to overcome future difficulties in training of the child, it is necessary to bypass all rectangle and to understand that you were not in time to school yet. Perhaps, to register in rhythmics or chess, to visit drama school, the logopedist, the psychologist or occupations of a creative cycle. And maybe, you should write down the child on knitting or beadwork? To karate or yogi? Dances, vocal, music or designing?by
Now within kindergartens, the developing centers, recreation centers and other child care facilities the set of the studios allowing to be prepared fully for school, to correct more weaknesses and to solve problems of a transition period from preschool institution to school is opened.
to check readiness of the preschool child for school, many different techniques and tests exist. Preparation for school is a long complex training of the child together with teachers and parents which will yield the fruits only at regular and systematic trainings not only in 3 months prior to school and even not for 1 year, and much earlier. - Parents have to understand that preparation for school is not only ability to read and write, but also ability to give help to the children in formation of psychological readiness, in development of independence, thinking, attention and memory. If preparation for school takes place in a complex, covering all parties of “rectangle“, and will be directed to the fast adaptation period of the first grader at school, then emergence of difficulties in training will be much less. All this is reached by regular trainings in games, work, in knowledge of world around.
Parents can pass the “Whether We Are Ready to Send the Child to School“ test from the collection spravochno - the information materials “The First Time in the First Class“.
“Enter the answers in the plate: if you agree with the statement, put a cross after a virgule if do not agree, leave a cage empty.
- Me it seems to
that my child will worse study other children. I am afraid of
- Ya that my child will often offend other children.
- In my opinion, four lessons - unreasonable loading for the small child. >
- it is difficult for li to be sure that teachers of elementary grades well understand children. the Child can quietly study
- only if the teacher - his own mother. > it is difficult for li to present to
- that the first grader can quickly learn to read, consider and write. Me it seems to
- that children at this age are not capable to be on friendly terms yet.
- I Am afraid even to think of how my child will do without day dream.
- my child often cries when the unfamiliar adult addresses it.
- my child does not go to kindergarten and never leaves mother.
- Elementary school, in my opinion, is seldom capable to teach something the child. I am afraid of
- Ya that children will tease my child.
- my kid, in my opinion, is much weaker than the peers. I Am afraid of
- that the teacher has no opportunity to estimate progress of each child. my child often tells
- : “Mother, we will go to school together!“ .
A now how many crosses there was in each column and what total amount. If the general indicator accepts value to 4 points, it means that you have all bases optimistically to wait on September 1 - at least, you are quite ready to school life of the child; > points - it is better for p to be prepared by
of 10 points and more - it would be quite good to p to consult the children`s psychologist. A we will pay now attention to in what columns 2 or 3 crosses are received. 1 - needs to be engaged more in the games and tasks developing memory, attention, thin motility. 2 - needs to pay attention to whether your child is able to communicate with other children. 3 - expect the difficulties connected with health of the child, but still there is time to be engaged in a hardening and the all-strengthening exercises 4 - there are fears that the child will not find contact with the teacher, it is necessary to pay attention to subject games. One more test for parents. Whether “The child is ready to school? whether“ Count quantity of affirmative answers on test questions. If it makes - the child needs your help, read special literature, try to find more time for occupations with the child and pay special attention to what he is not able! If after carrying out tests you understood that your child is insufficiently prepared, be not upset, the main thing - in time to reveal and prevent possible difficulties. Now you know that the program of training of children for school has to include not only pedagogical, but also psychological, physical and speech training to school. Now, besides free preparation for school in kindergarten, you can write down the child on special courses of preparation for school, invite the tutor or be engaged with the child independently at home. Complex training of children for school - a task difficult, but quite solvable, and one of the major factors on the way of its realization is a spirit and determination of parents. Try to talk more to the child, let`s it solve logical games, to communicate with peers, read, be engaged in creativity, physical training, and at you everything will turn out. Knowing the main aspects of training of your kid, it will be simpler to both of you to pass this difficult way of preparation for new fascinating life under the name “SCHOOL“.
of 10 points and more - it would be quite good to p to consult the children`s psychologist.
A we will pay now attention to in what columns 2 or 3 crosses are received.
1 - needs to be engaged more in the games and tasks developing memory, attention, thin motility.
2 - needs to pay attention to whether your child is able to communicate with other children.
3 - expect the difficulties connected with health of the child, but still there is time to be engaged in a hardening and the all-strengthening exercises
4 - there are fears that the child will not find contact with the teacher, it is necessary to pay attention to subject games.
One more test for parents. Whether “The child is ready to school? whether“
Count quantity of affirmative answers on test questions.
If it makes
- the child needs your help, read special literature, try to find more time for occupations with the child and pay special attention to what he is not able!
If after carrying out tests you understood that your child is insufficiently prepared, be not upset, the main thing - in time to reveal and prevent possible difficulties.
Now you know that the program of training of children for school has to include not only pedagogical, but also psychological, physical and speech training to school.
Now, besides free preparation for school in kindergarten, you can write down the child on special courses of preparation for school, invite the tutor or be engaged with the child independently at home. Complex training of children for school - a task difficult, but quite solvable, and one of the major factors on the way of its realization is a spirit and determination of parents. Try to talk more to the child, let`s it solve logical games, to communicate with peers, read, be engaged in creativity, physical training, and at you everything will turn out. Knowing the main aspects of training of your kid, it will be simpler to both of you to pass this difficult way of preparation for new fascinating life under the name “SCHOOL“.