Studying of the alphabet in articulation exercises of
Appearance of a letter as symbol does not bear in itself absolutely any information on a sound, in it concluded. However being still imperfect by three years of the kid, abstract vision does not allow the baby to master the abc-book with ease, without addressing analogies, bright figurative comparisons, bright examples.Therefore training
in the alphabet, the parent surely has to “write out“ function of each symbol as covers of the sound which is contained in names of objects emotionally to explain characteristic features of appearance of a letter. To look for similarity to “character“ of a letter, its properties (for example, the soft concordant - kind, smiling, warm as a fresh roll; the firm concordant - cold, angry, unsmiling, firm, as crouton).
But getting acquainted with material, new to itself - the world of letters - besides bright figurative and infinitely entertaining stories the kid has to receive data on mission of letters, a way of their use as a symbol.
having So got acquainted with the first letter of the alphabet, the child already has to find the objects containing the vowel concluded in a letter A, and over time - and to find out the provision of a sound in the found word (at the beginning, the middle or its end). For example, using a palm as model (the first finger - the beginning of the word, average - the middle, the last - the end), to designate a letter objects, attaching a letter to a palm surface (“water color“, “orange“, “pineapple“).
By the way, parents make a big mistake, acquiring the abc-book as in the book of a letter are located in alphabetical order for studying of letters. Are especially pernicious for the child of the alphabet without drawings which do not contain near images of letters of the image of objects which names begin on the studied letter, do not give the chance to spell names of objects and to find a sound symbol in the offered word.
Studying of the alphabet is not only process of explanation of sense of symbols and their sounding. These are the process directed to statement of some sounds difficult to pronounce as individual pronunciation allows to reveal defect of the speech to estimate its distortions and to eliminate them completely. Only separate pronouncing is capable to show to the child as it is necessary to say a sound. And then, gradually connecting sounds, to teach to read competently a sound in straight lines (“to a pas) and the return (“ap“) syllables, words with confluence of consonants (“erased“, “ml“).
Studying letters and at the same time carrying out articulation gymnastics - the exercises directed to statement of sounds - the kid has chances to quicker learn to read syllables, to find out nature of sounding of separate sounds in them.
Therefore when studying alphabetic material should follow certain rules.
- reject the abc-book aside At the beginning, arm with pictures and teach the child to pronounce separately simple vowels which are contained in the name of images in passing carrying out exercises on mobility of lips and cheeks, regulation of an air stream (see below), and also explanation of maintenance of a sound in the word. Studying of simple vowels (And, E, O, U) alternate
- to analysis of paired consonants, simple on sounding (B - P, D - T, - To).
- Having acquainted the child with couple of sounds, one of which public, and the second concordant, teach the child to read the syllables formed by them at once (directly and back), training a joint pronunciation of sounds in a syllable. Consider
- that not only letters, but also syllables work as symbols, so, having learned to read only couple of syllables, already each syllable of pictures which symbol they can be (OH - the Drum should involve the child on selection; Pa - a sail).
- Combine studying of sounds with the articulation exercises promoting the correct pronunciation of concrete sounds use at statement of a sound make-shifts, models (see below).
- Think out exercises in which the kid needs to repeat sounds which we regularly hear and which are similar studied (“at - at - at“ - hoot the train, “and - and - and“ - the kid shouts, “r - r - r“ - the tiger growls, “with - with - with“ - the snake hisses). You ask to call a sound, depicting the mechanism of its emergence (as soup - “shch - shch - shch“ runs away as elevator doors - “sh - sh - sh“ are closed). Training speech attention of the child, use exercises “Who called? (mother, the father, the brother), “Who so speaks?“ . you pass
- Into the last line to studying whistling (with, z, v), hissing (h, sh, y) and sonorny (l, p). the accurate pronunciation of public and some consonants is Especially important to fulfill
- before statement of the whistling and hissing sounds. So, before studying of a sound “with“ it is necessary to repeat with the child of a pronunciation of a sound “and“ as position of bodies when pronouncing “with“ is similar to their situation when pronouncing a sound “and“. And beginning to master sounds “sh“ and “shch“, be convinced of pronunciation clearness at the child of the sounds having similarity in a pronunciation of sounds (“in“ and “f“). It is also best of all to study pair sounds in common.
- Children often confuse some sounds at a pronunciation therefore it is necessary to develop speech hearing of the child, to offer tasks on a pair differentiation is similar the heard sounds (“ch“ - “t“; a leak - aunts), soft and hard consonants (meat - oil).
- should acquaint the child With a soft and hard sign that is called in practice. To pay attention to these letters when they carry out the functions of mitigation and division. Showing functions, also use pair comparisons (chalk - a bank; sat down, ate).
- Having acquainted the child with the most part of the alphabet, begin to complicate gradually tasks, suggesting not only to define the provision of a sound in the word, but also quantity of the specified sound in the word, to define its characteristic (public, concordant, soft, firm), to give the letter by letter scheme of the word (having designated conditionally concordant and vowels), to count quantity of vowels and concordants, to call the second (third, first) public, a consonant. The quantity of the tasks performed by the child aurally has to increase every day. you Learn
- sayings, tongue twisters, chistogovorka for automation of sounds, working off of a pronunciation in places of confluence of concordants (“From - under thud of hoofs dust flies across the field“ “Fry roast in a brazier“ “The veterinarian Vasilisa armed with a vaccine“, “The sleepyhead looked for a dog in a garden - was tired“).
Thus, moving consistently from simple to difficult, the kid will gradually improve abstract thinking and acoustical attention, to develop the articulation device, improving its flexibility and mobility. With the last it will be helped by some articulation exercises which should be carried out for strengthening and improvement of work of facial muscles.
For example, during studying of vowels the main objective is reduced to frequent change of position of lips, breath normalization. Children`s respiratory organs prepare for a pronunciation hissing therefore exercises at this stage are directed to improvement of mobility of lips, increases in volume of an exhalation. Suggest the baby to inflate balls, to blow in a pipe, on a cotton wool piece (“snowflake“), to play a flute. You watch that at the same time the kid did not blow out excessively a cheek, and the pressure of air was concentrated. Exercises “Show a duck (to extend lips in a tubule), “Show a frog“ (to stretch lips in a smile) too mobility of muscles of lips and cheeks promote.during a pronunciation hissing and “r“ should be convinced by
of a good extension of a bridle of language of the child, his mobility, ability to hold a pressure, to vibrate.to the Kid the provision of language will be useful to learn to define and control
. For this purpose it is possible to use the certain models (made of hands), make-shifts.
For example, during statement of the whistling and hissing sounds for explanation by the child of provision of language it is possible to use the model made of a palm. Turn the child`s palm inside up and slightly bend fingers, showing as far as the uvula has to rise to the top teeth, lean finger-tips against a table and show language emphasis force. If the kid poorly coordinates the movements, try to use the spoon handle to control the child`s language: to raise during execution of hissing, not to allow to rise too highly, to keep optimum distance between teeth during a pronunciation of whistling.
during occupations, devoted to statement hissing and “r“, it is good to use these exercises:
- “Uma teeth a uvula, without opening a mouth“ (the mouth is closed, the child carries out by language on teeth from above and from below); “Show to
- a fungus“ (language sticks to the sky, forming both a hat and a leg of a mushroom);
- “Dumb as a fish“ (language prisosan to the sky, the child opens and closes a mouth); “Clink
- as a horse“ (clatter by a uvula, imitation of knock of hoofs). >
Well, and of course, being engaged in li with you in studying of sounds and the letters designating them, the kid should not miss during occupations. You have to play, think out all the time something interesting, amusing, memorable. At the child interest in a letter and a sound has to remain. Therefore use any opportunity to tell the child the fairy tale during training. For example, use comparisons, metaphors and tell to the kid that in the kingdom the Alphabet vowels just as little girls, like to sing and have fun, for their pronunciation we always use a voice, and sounds can be sung. And here concordants just as boys, serious and strict, they do not like to have fun and are not sung at all, only puffing comes out. Soft sounds cheerful and warm, firm - cold and strict. And the hard sign absolutely angry, will rise on the road as the stubborn mule, and does not give to sounds neither to connect, nor to talk. Separates all! Temper soft easier has, in some words so will soften a consonant that not to learn its firm nature at all!
Here so cheerfully and fantastically studying of the alphabet together with performance of articulation exercises will bring to the child a lot of knowledge, abilities and will not force to miss as intellectual tasks at the same time are harmoniously combined with the tasks demanding the movement, and the scientific facts closely intertwine with the parental imagination.