In total - in a garden, or Theories of the childhood
the Russian children, strangely enough, begin to Study not in the first class, and much earlier - in kindergarten. And for the last 20 years for kindergartens more programs, than were developed for elementary school.Consider
: ten one and a half complex (defining all life in a garden), and to them still pieces thirty additional - devoted only to physical training, only drawing etc. But the fact that the kindergarten offers the profound program and a heap of additional classes is not always advantage. In any case, teachers and psychologists so claim. whether
A are known by you that even and cutting cockerels from color paper the children are engaged in a molding of hedgehogs from plasticine not on a momentary whim of the tutor, and according to an educational program to which the kindergarten adheres? And if to
the Program under M. A. Vasilyeva`s edition was created on the basis of that that developed scientific research institute of preschool education of NPA of the USSR. On it two thirds of the Russian kindergartens still work. And not because the program is better than the others. Just in teacher training Universities by tradition study only it, and in kindergartens the mass of the corresponding grants, posters, etc. remained. Occupations “according to Vasilyeva“ remind school lessons: kids sit at little tables and listen to the story of the tutor. Or something is drawn, glued, molded. The program difficult - includes also school subjects.in the Spring kindergartens hold by
“Rainbow“ - the program, the second for prevalence. There are no revolutionary innovations in comparison with Vasilyeva, but a priority - emotional wellbeing of kids. It is supposed that all kindergarten years the child has to have the same tutor. In group the mass of traditions is created. For example, “Sweet evening“ - informal tea drinking is spent every week. And every month - holidays for children with parents. Or, for example, a housewarming holiday in honor of resettlement of children from one group in another. Tutors often give to children small gifts - beautiful ribbons, stones, sweets. The property rights are emphasized - if the child brought a toy from the house, neither the tutor, nor other kids should not select it. And in reality parallel to children there are magic little men - listovichka. Preschool children make to them a lodge with furniture, construct for them the railroad. Listovichki is sent in reply by gifts, write them letters, tell about the nature and the world in general. That is children master the same knowledge and skills in a game form.
Baatr Egorov, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, the leading researcher of Institute of the psychologist - pedagogical problems of the childhood of Russian joint stock company: “This program quite good, sound and, at least, to the child will not do much harm. But I all - would send the to a garden where work by more advanced, modern techniques“.
Irina Burlakova, candidate of psychological sciences, department chair “Pre-school pedagogy and psychology“ faculty of psychology of formation of MGPPU:“ In my opinion, it is better to be guided by modern programs. And still I would advise to descend in kindergarten on the Open Day (they usually are in the spring) to decide how this kindergarten suits parents: whether normally tutors communicate with children whether they can explain to parents what they and for what train in in what form classes and to that similar details are given in a garden.
Ivan Kirillov, the candidate of psychological sciences, the deputy director on scientific work of Institute of the psychologist - pedagogical problems of the childhood of Russian joint stock company:“ It is not necessary to study the school program in advance! For development of the preschool child it is only important to define that it is interesting to it. To further maintain this interest. Important: learn, the garden is how completed with personnel. If in group there are no nurses, then the tutor, will be engaged generally in washing of ware, but not education of children. And still - the closer from the house there is a kindergarten, the better“.
“Childhood“ - development of Petersburg scientists. It is supposed to develop at kids, first of all, initiative and independence - at emergence of any difficulty at the child the teacher should not rush right there to the aid. On the contrary - in group there are broken toys demanding repair, the ciphered records, details of some devices. Children have to cope with these problems. Also it is considered that each preschool child develops at the speed therefore it is not necessary “to pull“ lagging behind artificially. The senior and preparatory groups care for kids - put for them performances and concerts, make books.
“Sources“ - the program of the Moscow teachers. Assumes that it is necessary to be guided not on calendar, and by psychological age of children (early, younger preschool and senior preschool) and, respectively, their requirements. At early age, for example, in the forefront at the child objects which he learns to use. And in preschool primary activity - game, and is the most interesting to beat situations from the adult world. There is no fixed plan of occupations with children in the program: each tutor selects methods of training and entertainment on the discretion. So, a lot of things depend on professionalism of the tutor.
Maria Krotva, Mytishchi:“ Mothers at our playground only also discuss who what knows about what garden. As a result, when to children the third year went, I rewrote the statement in a city board of education about “desirable“ gardens three times. And all in vain. In - the first, opinions on gardens were opposite, and seemingly good gardens had obvious minuses, and at allegedly bad - the advantages. In - the second, it turned out that at our number of turn we will never get to a garden (thus that there were we there when to the child there were several months from a sort). Legally only the children who were born at the beginning of a year get to a kindergarten (the turn “is nullified“ every year). Autumn and December kids cannot even hope. As a result we did not choose a garden, and... beat out: wrote the dry “legal“ letter to the mayor about the rights and his duties. Received the polite answer that the child is included in lists of new group of it - that a garden. Then to us silently wrote out the permit“.
Alina Grushko. Dolgoprudny:“ In September at the first PTA meeting of our younger group to us solemnly declared that children will go in for mathematics on the developing notebooks of “Igralochk“. Handed over money, bought grants. Having received them on hands, reflected: how the tutor will work with group if for many tasks it is necessary to cut out at first any details from the methodical appendix at the end of a notebook? And children in our younger group were from 2 to 3,5 years - as two-year-olds will remain sitting what will be understood? It appeared, everything is very simple: there is never enough time for mathematics almost therefore tasks to us set on the house. To make at the weekend and to bring. Here such algebra with geometry“.
“Kindergarten - the House of Pleasure“ Program it is created by teachers of the Perm state university in 1985. Essence: training of kids in different types of activity. Here even a lunch - special ritual. Children not only learn to use all tableware, including a knife, - during meal there is a quiet conversation of the tutor with children to food, about products from which it is prepared, about people of different professions. And at the beginning of a quiet time the tutor surely reads to children something from the Russian classics. The mode assumes “Minute of prank“ and “Minute of silence“. In group there “lives“ a character Mishka. Children with great pleasure teach it, tell that they made, learned. And the preparatory group is a group of all-round encyclopedic development of each child. Children open for themselves more than 30 names of the compatriots who glorified our Homeland - from Lomonosov and Pushkin to Tsiolkovsky and Rimsky-Korsakov, and get acquainted with their creations and opening.
“School 2100“ - according to this program children can be engaged at first in kindergarten, and then and at school. Developers published the mass of colourful grants to all subjects and tastes. Occupations begin with statement of a problem: in habitual game children suddenly got up to the deadlock, they lack any knowledge and abilities. And the child has to find the decision with hints of the adult. In bright notebooks to kindergartners suggest to paint something, to lead round, choose - and to get acquainted in passing, for example, with fundamentals of mathematics. However, some experts consider that though the program and is considered new, it is very close to traditional system of Vasilyeva.
the TRIZ Program (The theory of the solution of inventive tasks) was developed in 1956 by the Soviet engineer, the writer and the scientist Heinrich Altshuller who was sure that any person can learn to invent, and for this purpose it is not obligatory to have congenital talent. Altshuller received the first copyright certificate in 17 years. Classes in the TRIZ program form at children such important qualities as flexibility of thinking, not banality, etc. The technology is realized in game. Example? Please! To each player cards with images of various objects - on one on each participant razlatsya. One of players is appointed the owner of a conditional teremk (a rug or a children`s lodge), and others (or another) approach a teremk and ask to it for a lodge.
- Tuk - tuk who lives in a teremochka?
- I, the Guitar. And you who?
- And I am the Rod. Let me in teremok?
- Tell, than you are similar to me - I will let!
the Guest has to compare both drawings, reveal the general signs and to call them. For example, both the guitar, and a rod are made of a tree. Or both the guitar, and at a rod has a string - a string. And so on until all cards appear in a teremka. And, the truth - all images though something and are similar to a guitar! It is possible and change the owner of a teremk. At first guitar, then rod and so on.by
But most often in one garden use several techniques at once. For example, for the smallest - the program of professor Ksenia Pechora (feature of education and development of children
It is modern
in recent years the new tendency appeared: preschool children are loaded not so much knowledge how many develop their thinking, imagination and skill to communicate in general. For this purpose there are several techniques.Psychologists approve
“Development“ - a technique which many teachers consider the most advanced. It is aimed at the development in children of mental and art capacities. Here very much attention is paid to games. Kids are engaged in designing - at first train to do just steady constructions of cubes, then - to build according to the scheme. Learn to read maps (look for “treasures“ according to the plan of the room, place furniture in a doll lodge according to the scheme). Or, for example, that it was easier to retell the fairy tale, designate characters circles and squares of different flowers and the sizes. Before teaching the child to read, he is acquainted with sounds. Children learn and bases of logic, easily can answer a question like “What on the picture more - apples or fruit?“ In Russia according to the Development program about 3 000 kindergartens, including about one hundred - in Moscow work. There could be more, but she demands very qualified tutors.
the Gold Key Program assumes that in a garden there have to be uneven-age groups. Therefore it is ideally suited for small “family“ gardens. Teachers work, first of all, with the senior children, and younger are brought up to their level. The main idea is that children know all better and remember something through emotions. So the main task - to sate children life with the positive and concerning her events. There are practically no traditional lessons here. Instead of them travel to Africa is arranged, for example.“ Having gone“ there, children learn about geography and history of the continent, about the local people, about exotic animals, etc.
However, not all kindergartens train children on the program of the first - the second class. For example, the Valdorfsky technique does not approve early training - till seven years load of memory and thinking is not allowed here. Generally in valdorfsky gardens of children acquaint with national culture: with myths, songs, dances. Kids draw much, participate in theatrical performances. Plus is mastered by household skills - for example, learn to prepare. And still the valdorfsky pedagogics does not welcome modern toys, viewing of the TV.Other child in three years already both reads
Maria Montessori`s Pedagogics - very popular now, though not a new technique. Rooms where kids gather, are divided into several parts. In everyone - the tasks and the toys. The child himself chooses, than to be engaged, and the tutor only briefly shows what to do with a toy. In a “practical“ zone kids master daily skills - can wash, clean footwear, learn to button and lace up boots. In a zone of “touch“ development the children master concepts of height, length, weight, color, listen to sounds. Here among toys - cylinders and cubes of the different sizes, smooth and rough plates, plates with shades of flowers, noise boxes, etc. In a “language“ zone the child leads round letters, draws them on paper with filled by sand or a semolina, in “motive“ goes on the ellipse drawn on a floor learning to hold balance, etc. And in “space“ learns elements of biology, geography, physics, chemistry and other sciences. >
It is considered p that Montessori`s technique very much suits small children: the pier, the gained personal experience inevitably raises further questions, that is inquisitiveness develops.
Ivan Kirillov, candidate of psychological sciences: “Parents have to share the principles of education which are declared in that preschool institution where they give the child. For example, at valdorfets there are a lot of pedagogical finds. Especially these gardens and schools are suitable for non-standard children - with health problems, with personal features. Let`s tell, they developed an interesting technique of training pisthe ma of levoruky children - it is already used today by everyone, nobody remembers any more that it - from valdorfsky pedagogics. And in general purely intellectual development often goes to the detriment of practical skills - sometimes the child in 3 years already reads and considers, and to teach him to wash hands and to put on parents forgot. But if in the childhood there is no opportunity to understand that it is interesting to you, at teenage age it is difficult to decide on choice of profession. Therefore let preschool children draw more, dance, etc. And purposefully to teach the kid it is necessary to read and consider only at his big desire“.