Maria - Antoinette - the victim Revolyutsii? Part 1Great French Revolution which beginning was marked by capture of the Bastille began in 1789, and ended in 1799 with trial of the last queen of France Maria - Antoinette. The convention cruelly slandered the queen, accused of an incest, attributed not one more crime and sent to a guillotine. And what it was made by the queen? It is worth addressing the beginning when Maria - Antoinette was born.
the Childhood and Maria`s family - Antoinette
the Family of the emperor Franz I Lotaringski always differed in “love“ to big posterity: the emperor had eight sisters and four brothers among whom there were both abbesses, and queens, well, and some, unfortunately, died in infancy. But one more important fact was the fact that Franz, unlike other representatives of royal houses, was in love with the spouse - Maria - Tereziya Avstriyskaya, the empress of the Sacred Roman Empire, in marriage with which sixteen children were born. Among them the most known: future emperor Joseph II, the emperor Leopold II, the queen of France Maria - Antoinette, the queen Both Sitsily Maria - Carolina and Maximilian Franz - the Great master of the Teutonic award. But actually, I would like to talk about the girl who was at first just dofiny, and then the queen of France.
On November 2, 1755 in the palace where the royal family lived, the girl who in several days during an office of Baptism received a name - Maria Antonija Josef of Johann Habsburg was born. Misfortunes began with its birth. On November 1 in Lisbon there was an earthquake which hundreds claimed the lives, or perhaps and thousands of people, and she was born in All Saints` Day in which it was accepted to put on all black and to remember deceased, but not to celebrate birthday in any way. Therefore birthday small Antoine was celebrated per day earlier.
One more “fate“ of destiny was the fact that God the king and the queen of Portugal had to become its, but from - for earthquakes they were forced to remain in Lisbon while their representatives were the archduke Josef and ertsgertsoginya Maria - Anna.
The childhood and all youth Antoine passed at court, mostly in the Schonbrunn Palace. The numerous family followed the strict rules therefore it at the age of three years ertsgertsoginya began to carry a corset, and began to be engaged in her education densely. Personally the empress Maria - Tereziya made the training program according to which all royal offsprings had to visit lessons of dances, theatrical representations, lessons of history, painting, spelling, and also, in addition, to study the theory of government, mathematics and foreign languages. Ertsgertsoginyam needlework and art of maintaining a small talk were also taught.
Unlike the brothers and sisters who strictly followed all rules and orders of mother Antoine was too restless, could not concentrate on something one and it was not built. The girl preferred games with the sister Maria - Carolina whom houses all called Charlotte, and fuss with puppies. Maria - Tereziya did not pay special attention to the daughter, preparation for a wedding did not begin yet. But it had also other problems. At first the beloved husband who went to a wedding to the son and died at him on hands died, then Iosif`s wife, Isabella Parmskaya, and together with it the little girl who did not live also several days died. After one more wife of the son, Maria Josefa Bawarskaja died again, also without having left successors. The child at the beloved daughter Maria - Christina whom houses called Mimi for her informings the mother died.
the Union Gabsburgov and Burbons
In the second half of the 18th century diplomats and governors of two great dynasties - Gabsburgov and Burbons, conceived to unite the powers the marriage unions. Maria - Tereziya wished to marry the daughter Maria - Elizabeth, and to marry the emperor Joseph II to the princess Doma of Burbons. But smallpox interposed in the matter, from - behind which the princess had the face covered with traces from an illness, and Iosif refused from - for death of the spouse.
Maria - Christina who used mother`s grief (pain of loss of the husband Franz) married in marriage for love, the poor duke Teshensky. But having recovered, Maria - Tereziya became reasonable and understood that she will not allow it any more, and resolved to give Maria - Amalia for Ferdinand I Bourbon - Parma, and Maria - Carolina for the king Both Sitsily, Ferdinand I. Both ertsgertsogina of Ioann - Gabriella and Maria - Josefa died of smallpox, allegedly, that Maria - Josefa died of smallpox, having caught from the namesake Zhosefy Bawarskaja.
When all marriage contracts were signed, the empress understood that she passed the most important and considerable groom, a dauphin of France of Ludovic, future king of France Louis XVI. The empress persistently demanded an official proposal, but the king played for time, referring to the fact that “the dauphin is young and too young for marriage“.
The official proposal was received in 1769, with a further wedding in a year. Then - that the empress also paid attention to the daughter, and was just shocked. Spoke and wrote Antoine in French also badly, as well as in native German. For ertsgertsoginyu all undertook: beginning from teachers and finishing the empress. From this day the girl began to live in rooms with mother, to learn in a rush of all kings and queens of France, history of France, yard etiquette. In a rush of began to change a hairdress, tried to level teeth and to teach everything that could be useful at that time still to the thirteen-year-old ertsgertsogena.
At last, a year later, to be exact on April 19, 1770, took place a grandiose ceremony of wedding by proxy where the groom was represented by the archduke Ferdinand. At the age of fourteen years Antoine forever leaves Vienna. On May 7 there was a ceremony of “transfer“ on the “neutral“ territory, near Strasbourg. By rules of this ritual, Antoine, having come into a tent from the Austrian side, forever renounced the Austrian titles, swore fidelity of France, changed clothes in the prepared French clothes and left already on the French side, becoming dofiny France Maria - Antoinette. The meeting with members of royal family, and also with the king Louis XV and the groom, took place in the Kompyensky wood.
On May 16, 1770 the second ceremony of wedding took place. One festivities were replaced by another, fireworks at the present Place de la Concorde had to become the culmination of all festivals. But from - for construction works which at that moment were performed there and from - for the begun fireworks panic rose, and people pushed together each other in ditches or simply - naprosto trampled. As a result of badly planned action 139 people died and more than one hundred were wounded.
Here family life Maria`s dauphins - Antoinette also began with such misfortunes, they will pursue it for the rest of the life.