How the turtle overtook Akhill, killed Eskhill, visited lira, nindzy and a calf?In this article we will continue gallery of outstanding turtles who held a firm place the in different areas of human culture. Let`s begin with ancient Greeks...
the Paradoxical turtle of Zenon
there Lived such Greek philosopher Zenon. He was a pupil of other philosopher Parmenid who claimed that the world is full (i.e. has no emptiness), it is uniform in everything, is uniform and immovable. And any there movement, space and time - just illusion.
As the similar courageous theory was divided by not everyone, Zenon decided to show on fingers that there is no movement, having created a number of paradoxical tasks - aporiya. We, of course, are interested in an aporiya about Akhill and a turtle.
Imagine, Zenon said that Akhill decided to run about with a turtle competing in speed. Of course, the mighty hero gives to a reptile odds and when the turtle crawls away on some distance, begins to run. And here something strange turns out. So far Akhill will reach a point where there was a competitor, there will pass time for which that will crawl away on some distance. Until the runner reaches the following point, the turtle will crawl away again. And though the distance between them will be reduced, be reduced it will be infinite and therefore, Akhill will never catch up with a turtle.
Paul Valery “Cemetery by the sea“:
Zenon Eleysky, thought striking,
Pierced me through with the arrow shivering,
Though itself neglected its flight.
gave birth me by a sound, is struck with an arrow.
Uzhel a shadow of a turtle to me will close
of Motionless Akhill fast run! to
From the point of view of common sense, there is nothing and to speak here. Here and famous Diogenes, having been tired to argue with Parmenid and Zenon`s fans, grew hysterical and just began to go to and fro, proving that the movement is. “E! You never know we see, - zenonets - parmenidets answered. - And here logic - the tool exact“.
The dirty trick as it often happens, consisted in the language of a task where it was told “point“, “timepoint“ - i.e. concepts abstract, not existing in reality were used. As a result the movement from continuous process turned in faltering, discrete. In other words, Akhill easily will pass all these uncountable “points“ because they are not spatial units for final time.
Evgeny Lukin: where you got with
Spoke: “Wons that hogwash? I Will catch up with
to Nobody, is juicy mother,
not to catch
of philosophical turtles
at the same time Zenon`s efforts were not in vain, having forced his opponents - Pythagoreans to reflect: and is it correct to present time and space in the form of a set of discrete units?
Bertran Russell: “Zenon`s arguments in this or that form formed
a basis of almost all theories of space, time and infinity which is put forward after it“.
the Turtle - the victim and the murderer
Long since people considered that from all predators is effective only eagles who began to dump turtles from big height directly on stones learned to fight against durability of a turtle armor.
On a legend, this eagle habit cost life to the Ancient Greek playwright Eskhill. According to Platon, Eskhill received a prediction that will die from the failed roof. The unfortunate playwright took all precautionary measures, slept in the fresh air... Until any weak-sighted eagle mixed his bald head with a stone and neatly started in it a weighty turtle.
the Musical turtle
would Seem that the general at a turtle and music? It appeared, the same armor. It formed a basis of Ancient Greek lira.
On a legend, beyond the years talented god Hermes in the first day of the birth took a turtle, two cow horns, volov of a gut and were built from these entrails by the tool - a symbol of all poets and musicians.
On one of versions, the first lira was presented to Orpheus, on another - to Apollo. Apollo not only forgave for lira to Hermes the stolen cows, but also awarded with the staff installing sympathies in hearts of people (we will remind that Hermes was god of trade and messenger Olimpa).
O. Mandelstam: the turtle - lira,
Hardly Is slow
- hardly toeless creeps,
Lies to itself on the sun of Epirus,
Quietly heating a gold stomach.
Who sleeping it will turn
Well who will caress its such? She in Terpandr`s dream expects
of Dry fingers having a presentiment of a raid... Mandelstam not strongly povolnichat
, having directly identified a turtle with lira. The matter is that the simplest kind of lira on - Greek was called “õåëåñ“ - as well as a turtle. Not without reason Lear`s constellation in a form (the extended parallelogram) reminds a turtle more, than a musical instrument. And Hevelius in the atlas of the star sky drew lira in claws at a kite that too directs at direct associations. Besides, “kite“ - on - Arab “Vega“ - is called the brightest star of this constellation.
Practically big difficulties caused the translation of a name of the character of Mock Turtle in all translators of “Alice in Wonderland“. Its ambiguity was displayed also in original illustrations of John Tenniel. On them we see a strange being who has a turtle armor, and the head and legs for some reason... veal.
As soon as translated a name of this character: both the Turtle Quasi, and Chepukhakh, and the Turtle - Veal - Legs, and the Counterfeit turtle, and Jacoba Tscherepacha, and Mintakrab, and Podkotik... I am afraid, as not any Englishman understands why Lewis Carroll thought up such hybrid.
Actually it gathered it directly from life. The matter is that in dining rooms of that time quite often gave “Mock Turtle Soup“ - allegedly turtle soup which was actually cooked from... beef. Not without reason the being in Carroll`s fairy tale cries when it executes the ode about evening soup, this soup will be obviously cooked from the singer.
As for the Soviet children, for it two were the most known fantastic turtles. In - the first, the wise Tortilla (from Turtle - a turtle) from A. Tolstoy`s fairy tale who handed to Buratino the Gold Key. In - the second, an animation turtle in fashion glasses - dragonflies from m / f 1974 which together with a young lion executed a beach hit on G. Gladkov`s music “I on the sun lie...“.
However, modern children have more very famous other turtles from whom Lewis Carroll would become stupid. It is only enough to translate completely their name - “Teenagers - mutants - the ninjia - turtles“. Thanks to the violent imagination of artists of comics - Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird - sluggish reptiles turned into fighters with the evil (!) who live in the sewerage (!!) under leadership of the sensei Krysy (!!!) . That finally to finish us, four heroes were nicknamed by Leonardo, Raphael, Donatello and Michelangelo. Therefore it is no wonder that many children, having caught these names, will present more likely green mutants, than ingenious creators of Renaissance.
Popularity “Turtles - the ninjia“ began to grow when together with comics began to make any accompanying goods - from figures of heroes to their images on undershirts and skateboards. And when in 1997 started a cartoon serial, about strange beings even people of the senior generation heard.
Our conversation on turtles comes to an end, but there was a wish to finish it on wiser note. Here at least a short, but instructive story about the Chinese wise man Zhuang - Zi.
Somehow Zhuang - Zi sat on the river bank and fished. The emperor, having learned that in his possession so dear person appeared, sent to the wise man of the dignitary with the offer: but whether kind Zhuang Zi the minister will deign - to become at his palace?
Having listened to the offer, the wise man answered with a parable: “I heard that in Chu there is a sacred turtle who died three thousand years ago. The governor wrapped it in fine silk, hid in a chest, and a chest that put ancestors in the temple. What this turtle would prefer: to be dead, but that worshipped her bones, or to be live even if she should drag the tail on dirt?“ . The answer was obvious therefore Zhuang - Zi added: “Leave away! I will drag a tail on dirt too!“