Rus Articles Journal

From where there were knights in Russia?

mystical filling of the concept “knight“ - European which came exactly from there where we meet the first information about knights at the time of crusades. The knight is the person of a notable origin who is in the service of the king, received special education and accepted dedication in knights from the king, a rank “baron“ and land possession.

Barons (dukes and counts) having “a small crown“ carried out imperious functions in the feudal possession and the states as the top management of commanders of royal army ensured safety. Subsequently these barons got own knights and own troops therefore the rank of the knight (baron) went down on one step. New barons began to take to themselves knights from among small estate noblemen.

Also creation of knightly awards where in knights the grand master or the master of an award could do dedication served decrease of the qualification of a notable origin in the knightly environment. As a rule, the royal bastarda having a noble title of the duke therefore the title of the master of a knightly award was equated in a hierarchical control system at the level of the prince of royal blood were masters. And after knights began to clone themselves, the knights lost any meaning.

We see the first mentions of knights at Galfrid Monmutsky, the author of “History of Britons“ and the poem “Merlin`s Life“ which retold earlier “History of Britons“ of Nenniya (the VIII-IX centuries) . Galfrid begins “History of kings of Britain“ from destruction of Troy and wanderings of the tsar Aeneas, seeking to show that kings of Britain are connected by related bonds with heroes of antiquity. Galfrid Monmutsky`s composition stands at the origins of formation of the legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.

They are busy with searches of “sacred Graal“ that indicates a postchristian origin of a legend. Within many centuries the knights remained a high vital ideal of medieval society and served as a moral standard of the medieval aristocracy. The knight could not battle against weaker opponent, ailing or the old man, and murder unarmed the knight`s cover an indelible shame.

We can see it also in some features of life of the knightly era described in the “Arturovsky ballads“ consolidated from works of the knight of a minnezinger of Tungsten von Eschenbach (apprx. 1170 - 1220) the poem numbering 25 thousand verses of “Parcival“ forms a basis.

In the Russian mythology athletes look for a sword “kladenets“ and rescue the captivated beauties, there is no information that athletes, as well as knights, participate in trials by ordail, but also they struggle with the evil and violence. Here too there are magicians and sorcerers, for example, in A.S. Pushkin`s poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila“ are such characters as Fynn and Naina reminding Merlin and to Morgan. Athletes are mentioned in songs and legends, they guarded Russia, on an outpost protecting the state boundaries.

However the powerful subject is not so simple, apparently, and scientists who for the first time began to write down the Russian bylinas only in the 19th century, here still did not come to a consensus. One expressed opinion that the word “athlete“ is borrowed from Turkic languages where is in such forms - “áàãàäóð“, “batyr“, carrying their origin to Sanskrit, referring to the fact that there is no word “athlete“ in other Slavic languages, except for Polish (bohater).

Others removed “athlete“ from “God“ through the word “rich“, but there is no suffix “-yr“. And this suffix can be taken from such ancient word how “to snatch“ which means dispute, hostility and perfectly fits into semantic value of the athlete - a ratnik. There is also one more ancient Russian word suitable on sense and gone out of use - “to pinch“ (to hide) when many considered that in athletes the divine manifestation allocated with extraordinary forces is hidden. For example, athletes of the Evening, Dawn and Polunochka, personification of a solar cycle.

“The science about athletes“ divides them into two groups: “senior“ and “younger“ where “seniors“, for example, Svyatogor, Mikula Selyaninovich, Volga, treat the pre-Christian period and are beings supernatural or werewolves. Such we see athletes Gorynya, Dubynya, Usynya (fire, the earth and water), Valigora or Vyrviduba, Perun`s representatives of god of a gromovnik. In bylinas fantastic miracles are made.

The female part of powerful mythology is presented by bogatyrshy Bela lebedyyu, Svyatogor`s wife. In east mythology it is Lybed - the sister of three brothers, founders of the tribe of glades - the Cue, the Cheek and Horiva. In the Baikal myths it is the wife Horideya, the primogenitor Baikal drill. In the Mongolian fairy tales White the swan is Rogmo Goa, the wife of the khan Geser.

And “younger athletes“ have already human image, this is Ilya Muromets, Alyosha Popovic, Dobrynya Nikitich - athletes of the Kiev limit of times of the prince of Vladimir. Besides old and new athletes, there is a separate group visiting Udaltsov: Surovets Suzdalets, Duke Stepanovich, Churila Plenkovich.

Athletes are divided into matchmakers and not matchmakers where matchmakers are the fullest images of wild, unrestrained forces of nature and carry a print of an extreme antiquity. Rank Svyatogor, Volgu Svyatoslavich and Mikula Selyaninovich, Sadko, Samson, Sukhan Odikhmantiyevich as them, Polkana (semi-horse), Kolyvan Ivanovich, Ivan Kolyvanovich, Samson Ivanovich, Samson Sameulowitsch and Molofer, or Malafey, Don Ivanovich and Danube of Ivanovich.

On these athletes look as at an embodiment of various natural phenomena hostile to people, for example, Svyatogor is personified with giant clouds. His name is considered purely Russian, occurred from “sacred“ and “mountain“. Someone tried to combine Svyatogor with a name of Saint Georgy (sacred + Egor) or bible Samson.