What is a golomyanka? Baikalo - Irkutsk sketches ofAmazing this lake - Baikal. Where you will look, the plants or animals living only in the lake or on its coast, so-called endemics meet everywhere. Impression that you got on some island which is torn off from a civilization. Here and that small fish about whom I want to tell today meets only here and in other place will not be able to live anywhere. Call
a small fish too not quite usually - a golomyanka. Similar small fishes in the world do not exist. It has no swimming bubble, there are no scales. Generally, fishes without swimming bubble are known, first of all it is deep-water beings to whom this bubble not only is not necessary, it is even harmful to them. With pressure which exist in the places of residence of these fishes it can burst in itself, it is obvious. And there are no fresh-water such fishes, there are not enough depths. Baikal here ahead of the planet of everything, there can live only there deep-water fishes to whom the golomyanka concerns. In a golomyanka everything is surprising: and the fact that her body for 35% consists of fat and that it viviparous, but really strikes that she at one stroke can give birth to 2 - 3 thousand whitebaits. Here such shaking this small fish was born on light.
Its Russian name came from time immemorial. It appears, there was it in the 16th century the word “golomya“ that meant - the remote place from the river bank or the lake. Came from it “ãîëîìåíü“ - bottomless places, and everything is farther obviously. In Dahl`s dictionary and it is written down: “a golomyanka - the Baikal small fish who always keeps in golomen, deeply“.
Subsequently scientists proved, that there are two golomyanka - big and small, different not only the physical sizes, but also some essential moments, as gave the chance to carry them in different types. Some differences are so essential that even the people who are not knowing anything about them can distinguish one from another at once. So, the adult small golomyanka remains transparent, and at it well appear through a backbone and blood vessels while big becomes whitish, opaque skin. Assume that it is caused by distinction in the content of fat - at big it reaches 44% of body weight.
Every night the golomyanka makes trips from the maximum depths to blankets where the small fish as if hangs in inclined situation with widely opened mouth. Having good reaction, the golomyanka promptly snatches on the forage floating by - crustaceans, own whitebaits and everything that she can eat. After sunrise fish follows fodder organisms which fall by depth to 50 - 100 meters, and then falls deeply where any more the sunlight does not get.
Golomyanki is small fishes single, in jambs do not get off. By calculations, them there live in the lake about 50 billion pieces that makes not less than 200 thousand tons of biomass. It would seem, it is a lot of fishes, and gross weight not such and big. The matter is that a small fish small: length of females of a big golomyanka does not exceed 25 cm while males - 16 cm. It is natural that the small golomyanka is even less though a difference in sizes between female and man`s individuals at it approximately same. It is amazing also that the golomyanka has not enough males in comparison with females. Judge for yourself - at a big golomyanka only of their 3% of total number of small fishes, that is turns out “what on 97 little girls statistically three children“. It is interesting what would happen to people in this situation? At a small golomyanka situation is much better, but all the same approximately only 20 males are the share of 80 female individuals.
Females of a big golomyanka vymetyvat whitebaits in June - August then right there perish. At a small version vymt whitebaits happens in February - April then females perish too, but in smaller quantity, than big.
From - for death of females it was also succeeded to learn about existence of this surprising fish for the first time. Usually in November - December to coast brought a great number of dead small fishes. Long time nobody saw live small fishes while the Polish naturalists banished there to participants of revolt of 1830 Benedict Dybovsky and Victor Godlessky did not manage to catch in an ice-hole of 12 live females of a golomyanka. Then it was established that the golomyanka is viviparous fish that was the real sensation, was considered before that only in tropics there can live viviparous fishes, and in the north of fish have to throw caviar.
From - for high content of fat after death of the small fish emerged, here and appeared ashore. On memoirs of eyewitnesses water cast a huge number of dead fishes ashore, than with success locals who collected a golomyanka used, melted from it fat and sold it to merchants. Those, in turn, resold fat in drugstores as doctors used it at treatment of many diseases, or took out it to China for use in traditional medicine. During wars in which the Russian soldiers participated fat of a golomyanka restored strengths of wounded. In pre-revolutionary times handicraftsmen were engaged in trade of a golomyanka and melting of its fat, any industrial production it was not created.
It is curious why today ashore nobody finds neither mountains of these small fishes, nor even its single copies? Where they got to? In their lake did not become less. It is one more riddle of a golomyanka.
By and large this fish was never caught in the trade purposes, however cases when fishermen ate snared a golomyanok in the frozen look, in the raw, previously slightly prisoliv are known and having peppered. In general fishing of a golomyanka usual means is impossible as in packs it does not gather and on a hook does not peck. Here also thought up so original way of its fishing that it was recognized even as the invention and granted on it the patent. The way is really unique and simple to impossibility, and the scientific ichthyologist Mamontov thought up it. Catch a golomyanok on the uncombed ends of a kapron rope which they seize the teeth.
Interestingly from where these small fishes in Baikal undertook? Some scientists assume that they were created in a subsoil of Baikal about two million years ago, but is also such which believe that Baikal appeared no later than 150 thousand years ago and if it so, so and a golomyanka is much younger. It is supposed that golomyanka ceased to lay caviar, and began to throw in water of already ready, hatched whitebaits.
Modern means of research and supervision allowed to establish that the golomyanka lives even in the very bottom Baikal, at a depth up to 1620 meters, at the same time she makes not one time trips from below up and back. So we will wait for disclosure of other secrets of this surprising small fish.