Jamaica. What history of this country?the Green solar tropical island, to be exact small group of islands, in the Caribbean Sea glorified for the whole world, get acquainted - Jamaica. This small state with an interesting story, smiling inhabitants and the year-round sun over the head. Jamaica was discovered by
on May 5, 1494 by Christopher Columbus during his well-known second swimming. In those days these lands were inhabited by Indians secretly. They got over from then yet not peddled old stuff here (by the way, secretly inhabited also the other Antilles, Cuba, Haiti, etc.) . In 1506 Jamaica was given to the Spanish crown, and for opening the title - the marquis of Jamaica was appropriated to Columbus.
- Christopher Columbus renamed Jamaica into Santiago, but the name did not get accustomed;
- Jamaica - from Indian “haymak“, the earth of mines.
The first Spanish city was founded in 1509 - new Seville, but from - for unsuccessful arrangements on the marshland it existed all till 1534. After Jamaica became the Spanish colony, Indians became slaves. They died of heavy work and diseases on plantations.
In 1513 to Jamaica began to bring slaves from Africa, for cultivation of a sugar cane. By the end of the 16th century the glory of the central transit point of a world slave trade was consolidated to the island (the markets of a slave trade of that time: Port - Royal and Kingston). In hundred years after occupation of the island by Spaniards Indians were almost exterminated.
In 50 - x years of the 17th century there was a war between Spain and England, and in 1655 Jamaica was taken by British. Officially the island became the English colony in 1670. After a while from the island Tortuga pirates began to move to Jamaica. The city Port - Royal was proclaimed piracy harbor - “the most guilty city in all the Christian world“.
Pirates plundered the ships and were engaged in sale stolen, they had the king and the court. But to disorders and robberies the end came: On June 7, 1692 the city left under water from - for earthquakes a tsunami. Those who survived refused to departure and on the money which remained from stolen constructed new magnificent country houses.
In the XVII-XVIII centuries Jamaica becomes the main supplier of sugar around the world. But slaves made revolts for improvements of working conditions and combated for freedom. They left plantations and founded free settlements. Extraction of sugar fell twice from - for shortages of labor. Then the decision to carry on the island of hired workers from China and India was made, but the situation did not improve.
After a wave of protests and bloody wars in 1838 the authorities finally cancelled slavery. For maintenance of economy in the country began to grow up bananas, a citrus, cocoes and coffee. It was promoted by investments from the USA. Americans redeemed part of the banana enterprises and began to be engaged in development of infrastructure of the island.
- Jamaica is the first country in the New World where the railroad was constructed.
But there came the new wave of revolts, now for independence, and in 1943 the universal suffrage was entered, and 1959 Jamaica achieved internal self-government.
On August 6, 1962 Jamaica gained independence of Great Britain. Then national flag was chosen and approved: it is green - is yellow - black. The motto - corresponding to flowers of a flag: “Difficulties are, but the earth is green and the sun shines“. On the State Emblem the man and the woman, with a board between them on which the red cross with five pineapples, and above the Jamaican crocodile is drawn are represented.
On the island extraction of limestone, plaster, marble and, of course, bauxite - aluminum ore is conducted. On its stocks the country takes the leading position in the world. Jamaica also carries out export of sugar, rum, coffee, bauxites and alumina to the USA, Canada, Great Britain and other countries. An important role in economy is played by services industry and tourism, agriculture and fishery.
The largest cities are: A valve (the capital of Jamaica), Spanish - the Town, Portmor and Montego - Beat. The woods occupy all the fifth part of the territory of the state, and wild animals are practically absent. Here it is possible to see bats and birds (including vympelokhvosty humming-birds), turtles and crocodiles, and also snakes and iguanas.
In Jamaica 2,6 million people from whom three quarters Africans will live. English is considered national language, but locals can communicate also on patuaysky. 80% of the population - Christians, and are as if surprising it sounded, they believe that Jesus was not white and you them in it for will not be able to overpersuade anything.
Here warmly and solarly all the year round, average temperature of 25 - 30 °C. But, as well as in any tropical country, there is a rainy season - from May to October.
On August 6 is a national holiday of Jamaica - the Independence Day which is celebrated festivities and fireworks.